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konsep IP routing

outing dari kata dasar route yang diserap dalam bahasa indonesia sebagai rute, definisinya adalah rute dari paket IP didalam jaringan dengan serangkaian tugas untuk mengirimkan paket IP dari router ke router sampai ke tujuan akhir sebagaimana sudah ditentukan didalam bagian IP Header. adalah mirip konsep routing antara jaringan IP dengan system transportasi, disini kami akan menerangkan bahwa konsep routing didalam jaringan IP juga mirip dengan pengoperasian pengiriman mail. dan kami akan membandingkan konsep routing IP dengan konsep konsep system lainnya.

a router has directly attached networks that are immediately accessible (in
other words, that do not require any specific routing mechanism to discover). Consider
router R, in the following example. Networks,, and
are directly connected to the router:
hostname R
interface Ethernet0
ip address
interface Ethernet1
ip address
interface Ethernet2
ip address

In fact, the moment these networks are connected to the router they are visible in R’s
routing table. Note in the following output that the command to display the routing
table is show ip route (in EXEC mode). Also note the “C” that is prepended to the
entries in the routing table, indicating that the routes were discovered as directly
connected to the router:
R#show ip route
Codes: C – connected, S – static, I – IGRP, R – RIP, M – mobile, B – BGP
D – EIGRP, EX – EIGRP external, O – OSPF, IA – OSPF inter area
N1 – OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 – OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 – OSPF external type 1, E2 – OSPF external type 2, E – EGP
i – IS-IS, L1 – IS-IS level-1, L2 – IS-IS level-2, * – candidate default
Gateway of last resort is to network
C is directly connected, Ethernet0 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C is directly connected, Ethernet1
C is directly connected, Ethernet2
Directly connected networks are automatically installed in the routing table if the
interface to the network is up. Figure 1-2 shows router R with its directly connected
networks. (The EXEC command show interface will show the state of the interfaces).
In the previous example, it is assumed that all three interfaces to the directly connected
networks are up. If an interface to a directly connected network goes down,
the corresponding route is removed from the routing table.
If multiple IP addresses are attached to an interface (using secondary addresses), all
the associated networks are installed in the routing table.
Static Routing
ip route
R#sh ip route

1 S [1/0] via
ip route
The syntax of the static route command is:
ip route network [mask] {address | interface} [distance]
where network and mask specify the IP address and mask of the destination. The
next hop may be specified by its IP address or by the interface on which to send the
packet. To point a static route to an interface (Ethernet0 in this case), use:
ip route interface Ethernet0
Static routes are smart to the extent that if the next hop (interface or IP address)
specified goes down, the router will remove the static route entry from the routing
Dynamic Routing
we spoke of the “shorter” or “shortest” path in the context
of both DV and Link State algorithms. Since a router may know of multiple
paths to a destination, each routing protocol must provide a mechanism to discover
the “shorter” or “shortest” path based on one or more of the following criteria: number
of hops, delay, throughput, traffic, reliability, etc. A metric is usually attached to
this combination; lower metric values indicate “shorter” paths. For each routing protocol
discussed in the chapters that follow, we will describe how the route metric is
A network under a single administrative authority is described as an autonomous system
(AS) in routing parlance. Interior gateway protocols (IGPs) are designed to support
the task of routing internal to an AS. IGPs have no concept of political boundaries
between ASs or the metrics that may be used to select paths between ASs. RIP, IGRP,
EIGRP, and OSPF are IGPs. Exterior gateway protocols (EGPs) are designed to support
routing between ASs. EGPs deploy metrics to select one inter-AS path over
another. BGP is the most commonly used EGP.
The Routing Table
At Grand Central Terminal, a big wall lists all the destinations and their corresponding
track numbers (see Figure 1-4). Passengers find their destination on this wall and
then proceed to the indicated platforms. Similarly, a routing table must contain at
least two pieces of information: the destination network and the next hop toward
that destination. This reflects a fundamental paradigm of IP routing: hop-by-hop
routing. In other words, a router does not know the full path to a destination, but
only the next hop to reach the destination.
Destination #####time#####tracknumber
New Haven 9:21 22
Cos Cob 9:24 11
Valhalla 9:31 19
Dover Plains 9:42 12
Bronxville 9:18 17

Routes are installed in the routing table as they are learned through the mechanisms
we have been discussing: directly connected networks, static routes, and dynamic
routing protocols. A typical routing table in a Cisco router looks like this:
Router>show ip route
Codes: C – connected, S – static, I – IGRP, R – RIP, M – mobile, B – BGP
D – EIGRP, EX – EIGRP external, O – OSPF, IA – OSPF inter area
N1 – OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 – OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 – OSPF external type 1, E2 – OSPF external type 2, E – EGP
i – IS-IS, L1 – IS-IS level-1, L2 – IS-IS level-2, * – candidate default
Gateway of last resort is to network
2 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C is directly connected, Serial1
C is directly connected, Serial0
3 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
4 S [1/0] via
5 S [1/0] via
6 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O IA [110/3137] via, 02:16:02, Ethernet0
[110/3137] via, 02:16:02, Ethernet0
O IA [110/3127] via, 02:25:43, Ethernet0
[110/3127] via, 02:25:43, Ethernet0
7 O E2 [110/20] via, 20:49:59, Ethernet0

Note that the first few lines of the output attach a code to the source of the routing
information: “C” and “S” denote “connected” and “static”, respectively, as we saw
earlier, “I” denotes IGRP, etc. This code is prepended to each routing entry in the
routing table, signifying the source of that route.
The body of the routing table essentially contains two pieces of information: the destination
and the next hop. So, (line 2) has two subnets, each with a 30-bit
mask. The two subnets are listed in the following two lines.
Line 3 shows an interesting case. has two subnets: and 10.254.
101.0/24. Not only are the subnet masks different, but the subnets are overlapping. A
destination address of would match both route entries! So, should a
packet for be routed to or Routing table
lookups follow the rule of longest prefix match. matches 8 bits on line 4
and 24 bits on line 5—the longer prefix wins, and the packet is forwarded to 160.4.
101.4. (line 6) has two subnets, each of which is known via two paths. (line 7) is not subnetted.
What if a route is learnt via multiple sources—say, via OSPF and as a static entry?
Each source of routing information has an attached measure of its trustworthiness,
called administrative distance in Cisco parlance. The lower the administrative distance,
the more trustworthy the source.
Table 1-1 shows the default administrative distances.
Table 1-1. Default administrative distances
Route source Default distance
Connected interface 0
Static route 1
External BGP 20
IGRP 100
OSPF 110
IS-IS 115
RIP 120
EGP 140
Internal BGP 200
Unknown 255

Thus, if a route is known both via OSPF and as a static entry, the static entry, not the
entry known via OSPF, will be installed in the routing table.
Note that distance information and the route metric appear in the output of show ip
route inside square brackets with the distance information first, followed by a “/”
and the route metric: [distance/metric].
Administrative distance is only considered internally within a router; distance information
is not exchanged in routing updates.

to be continued..

What’s Wrong with IT Strategy

By definition, every organization has an IT Strategy – some have it clearly articulated and the others are working to one without knowing it. The question is: Is the IT Strategy producing results? One can also ask the same question a different way: What must one do to make IT Strategy produce results? Or, perhaps, what is wrong with this IT Strategy? The strength of an IT Strategy does not come from it being articulated. It lies along its entire lifecycle – from the vision to the underlying policies, framework, process design, including management and control mechanisms, and execution. Each of them must be carefully thought through and designed. Vision, principles and policies set the direction for an IT Strategy. They are the first step to designing and defining an IT Strategy but, more importantly, they reflect the stakeholders’ beliefs. It is critical that the strategy evolve from these beliefs, otherwise execution will be “half hearted”. It is also absolutely essential to realize that “stakeholders” include both the designers and the executers of this strategy. A framework provides structure to IT Strategy. It enables rapid, repeatable results by ensuring that we have a complete “picture” and made the key connections. Frameworks might not guarantee success, but they sure help sustain and repeat it. Sometime, they can also salvage a floundering effort by identifying root cause of failure. Without a framework success or failure are a black box. More often than not, success comes from tinkering with an initial failure. Frameworks are invaluable in this tinkering. Sometimes we forget that IT Strategy is a process not a point in time event. Like any other process, IT Strategy process must also be designed and have an “owner”. It must also be integrated with other processes such as Budget, Portfolio Rationalization, Enterprise Architecture Planning and Systems Implementation. It must also be managed – monitored and controlled – using clearly defined metrics and mechanisms. Execution makes all the difference between success and failure of an IT Strategy. An IT Strategy might look good on paper. However, implementation is where the rubber meets the road and for the first time we know, for sure, if things are working as planned. As much as strategy drives execution, the reverse is also equally true. A good IT Strategy is one that is built factoring in “practical” considerations or execution “constraints”. Also, on an ongoing basis, real data from execution must be used to “fine tune” strategy. For the sake of brevity, we cannot delve into all that issues affecting IT Strategy. So let us look at 10 key reasons why IT Strategies fail to, well, sizzle: Show me the alignment? IT Strategy and alignment are such very nebulous terms that most people have difficulty defining them in a manner that is actionable. It is fine to say that an IT Strategy is going to align IT with business but it is another matter that most people cannot prove this alignment. Most CIOs cannot say for sure if their IT is aligned with business. Show me the value? Another area of concern is whether an IT Strategy will create verifiable and sustainable results. One of the reasons for business leaders’ dissatisfaction with IT in general, and IT Strategy in particular, is that one cannot verify results. We know that IT Alignment creates shareholder value. However, if one cannot verify alignment itself, they cannot expect to be taken seriously, when they claim, that it resulted in shareholder value creation. What is the ROI of NPV? It is hard to argue with Peter Drucker, when he says, “If you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it”. However, is measurement is not restricted to financial measures such as NPV. It is not synonymous with “dollar-denominated”. IT is different. Its value cannot be measured only through NPV or other financial measures. Its measure does not have to be dollar denominated. There are other, better, means of measuring IT Value. How does this decision impact IT Value? An IT Strategy is not an end in itself. Organizations’ need to keep it updated. For example, unanticipated events require a response that might not have been considered in the original strategy. It is critical to understand how these decisions, in response to these events, affect the IT Strategy. Also, how do they impact value creation originally identified? How does this business decision impact IT? Stuff happens. In a business, it happens frequently and, more often than not, without warning. Speed and agility of response, differentiate businesses that succeed. Quickly, one would like to know the impact of a business event on its IT. Also, how can IT help respond to them – efficiently and effectively. IT Strategy framework must, seamlessly, traverse the business and IT boundaries to quickly assess the impact of an event across the entire organization. It should allow for quick decision making in response to these events – by assessing the impact on of each decision on shareholder value. One big leap or baby steps? Success, often, is a multi step process, especially, in uncharted territory. Our response to an initial stumble, determines if it is a minor glitch or a decisive blow. A good framework, process with a feedback loop and metrics help in this endeavor. IT Strategy’s success is no different. Our first foray might result in some problems. We should be able to know when we have faltered; if it is a glitch or a blunder; quickly assess the reason for our stumble. We must also be able to quickly devise a response. Can I learn from my experience? The classic definition of insanity is: repeating the same steps expecting different results. Why do IT organizations behave insanely? Because most organizations do not spend the time to analyze, document, incorporate, disseminate or teach their “lessons learnt”. Best practices are not disseminated from one part of the organization to the other. Failures are hidden. New team members are not taught “what works” and “what doesn’t”. Processes are not modified to incorporate lessons learnt. Your “next” IT Strategy is bound to deliver the same results and this one – nothing less; nothing more Is this a steering committee or a team? Often, IT Strategy is delegated to a steering committee comprised of participants from different functions. Each participant brings excellent, relevant and complementary skills to the table. However, this is a great idea that fails during execution. A successful team must have clearly defined roles and responsibilities. Each member of the team must understand how the different pieces of the puzzle fit together. Each member must “deliver” something. Together, then, the team delivers results. Steering committees result in the right people showing up for all the right meetings. However, they do not focus on role definition. They also fail to assign responsibility for deliverables. More often than not, these committees turn into debating societies where a lot of good stuff is discussed but very little, if anything, of value is ever delivered. Who will lose their job if this fails? Accountability is critical to the success of an IT Strategy. One can create a very “good” IT Strategy that either stays on the shelf or fails miserably when executed. Till success or failure is linked to executive compensation and/or career, such strategies and/or failures will continue to occur. Are we in compliance? IT standards are a critical enabler of IT Strategy because they help lower cost of operations. Organizations invest in standards teams that take great pains in defining standards. Often, IT Strategy process is not linked to a compliance process. Hence, projects that do not adhere to technical standards get implemented. Thus a great IT Strategy results in higher than desirable cost of operations.This is by no means an exhaustive list. However, addressing these will take us many steps closer to the solution.

Sejarah Terciptanya Virus Komputer

Virus komputer pertama kalinya tercipta bersamaan dengan komputer. Pada tahun 1949, salah seorang pencipta komputer, John von Newman, yang menciptakan Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC), memaparkan suatu makalahnya yang berjudul “Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata”. Dalam makalahnya dibahas kemungkinan program yang dapat menyebar dengan sendirinya. Perkembangan virus komputer selanjutnya terjadi di AT&T Bell Laboratory salah satu laboratorium komputer terbesar di dunia yang telah menghasilkan banyak hal, seperti bahasa C dan C++.1 Di laboratorium ini, sekitar tahun 1960-an, setiap waktu istirahat para peneliti membuat permainan dengan suatu program yang dapat memusnahkan kemampuan membetulkan dirinya dan balik menyerang kedudukan lawan. Selain itu, program permainan dapat memperbanyak dirinya secara otomatis. Perang program ini disebut Core War, yaitu pemenangnya adalah pemilik program sisa terbanyak dalam selang waktu tertentu. Karena sadar akan bahaya program tersebut, terutama bila bocor keluar laboratorium tersebut, maka setiap selesai permainan, program tersebut selalu dimusnahkan. Sekitar tahun 1970-an , perusahaan Xerox memperkenalkan suatu program yang digunakan untuk membantu kelancaran kerja. Struktur programnya menyerupai virus, namun program ini adalah untuk memanfaatkan waktu semaksimal mungkin dan pada waktu yang bersamaan dua tugas dapat dilakukan. Pada tahun 1980-an, perang virus di dunia terbuka bermula atas pemaparan Fred Cohen, seorang peneliti dan asisten profesor di Universitas Cincinati, Ohio. Dalam pemaparannya, Fred juga mendemonstrasikan sebuah program ciptaannya, yaitu suatu virus yang dapat menyebar secara cepat pada sejumlah komputer. Sementara virus berkembang, Indonesia juga mulai terkena wabah virus. Virus komputer ini pertama menyebar di Indonesia juga pada
tahun 1988. Virus yang begitu menggemparkan seluruh pemakai komputer di Indonesia, saat itu, adalah virus ©Brain yang dikenal dengan nama virus Pakistan.

Pengertian Virus Komputer

Istilah virus komputer tak asing lagi bagi kalangan pengguna komputer saat ini. Padahal, sekitar 12 tahun yang lalu, istilah ini telah dikenal oleh masyarakat pengguna komputer. Baru pada tahun 1988, muncul artikel-artikel di media massa yang dengan gencar memberitakan mengenai ancaman baru bagi para pemakai komputer yang kemudian dikenal dengan sebutan ‘virus komputer’. Virus yang terdapat pada komputer hanyalah berupa program biasa, sebagaimana layaknya program-program lain. Tetapi terdapat perbedaan yang sangat mendasar pada virus komputer dan program lainnya. Virus dibuat oleh seseorang dengan tujuan yang bermacam-macam, tetapi umumnya para pembuat virus hanyalah ingin mengejar popularitas dan juga hanya demi kesenangan semata. Tetapi apabila seseorang membuat virus dengan tujuan merusak maka tentu saja
akan mengacaukan komputer yang ditularinya.

Kemampuan Dasar Virus Komputer

Definisi umum virus komputer adalah program komputer yang biasanya berukuran kecil yang dapat meyebabkan gangguan atau kerusakan pada sistem komputer dan memiliki beberapa kemampuan dasar, diantaranya adalah :

Kemampuan untuk memperbanyak diri
Yakni kemampuan untuk membuat duplikat dirinya pada file-file atau disk-disk yang belum ditularinya, sehingga lama-kelamaan wilayah penyebarannya semakin luas.

Kemampuan untuk menyembunyikan diri
Yakni kemampuan untuk menyembunyikan dirinya dari perhatian user, antara lain dengan cara-cara berikut :
a. Menghadang keluaran ke layar selama virus bekerja, sehingga pekerjaan virus tak tampak oleh user.
b. Program virus ditempatkan diluar track2 yang dibuat DOS (misalkan track 41)
c. Ukuran virus dibuat sekecil mungkin sehingga tidak menarik kecurigaan.

Kemampuan untuk mengadakan manipulasi
Sebenarnya rutin manipulasi tak terlalu penting. Tetapi inilah yang sering mengganggu. Biasanya rutin ini dibuat untuk :
a. Membuat tampilan atau pesan yang menggangu pada layer monitor
b. Mengganti volume label disket
c. Merusak struktur disk, menghapus file-file
d. Mengacaukan kerja alat-alat I/O, seperti keyboard dan printer

Kemampuan untuk mendapatkan informasi
Yakni kemampuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang struktur media penyimpanan seperti letak boot record asli, letak table partisi, letak FAT3, posisi suatu file, dan sebagainya.

Kemampuan untuk memeriksa keberadaan dirinya
Sebelum menyusipi suati file virus memeriksa keberadaan dirinya dalam file itu dengan mencari ID (tanda pengenal) dirinya di dalam file itu. File yang belum tertular suatu virus tentunya tidak mengandung ID dari virus yang bersangkutan. Kemampuan ini mencegah penyusupan yang berkali-kali pada suatu file yang sama.

2.4 Jenis-jenis virus komputer

Berikut ini akan dibahas jenis-jenis virus yang penulis simpulkan dari berbagai sumber, baik sumber pustaka maupun sumber dari internet.

2.4.1 Berdasarkan Teknik Pembuatannya

a. Virus yang dibuat dengan compiler
Adalah virus yang dapat dieksekusi karena merupakan virus yang telah di compile sehingga menjadi dapat dieksekusi langsung. Virus jenis ini adalah virus yang pertama kali muncul di dunia komputer, dan sampai sekarang terus berkembang pesat. Biasanya virus jenis ini dibuat dengan bahasa pemrograman tingkat rendah yang disebut dengan assembler, karena dengan menggunakan assembler program yang dihasilkan lebih kecil dan cepat, sehingga sangat cocok untuk membuat virus. Tetapi tidak tertutup kemungkinan untuk membuat virus dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman lainnya seperti C dan Pascal baik dilingkungan DOS maupun Windows .
Mungkin virus jenis ini adalah virus yang paling sulit untuk dibuat tetapi karena dibuat dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman dan berbentuk bahasa mesin maka keunggulan dari virus ini adalah mampu melakukan hampir seluruh manipulasi yang mana hal ini tidak selalu dapat dilakukan oleh virus jenis lain karena lebih terbatas.

b. Virus Macro

Banyak orang salah kaprah dengan jenis virus ini, mereka menganggap bahwa virus Macro adalah virus yang terdapat pada program Microsoft Word. Memang hampir seluruh virus Macro yang ditemui merupakan virus Microsoft Word. Sebenarnya virus Macro adalah virus yang memanfaatkan fasilitas pemrograman modular pada suatu program aplikasi tertentu seperti Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowePoint, Corel WordPerfect, dan sebagainya. Tujuan dari fasilitas pemrograman modular ini adalah untuk memberikan suatu kemudahan serta membuat jalan pintas bagi
aplikasi tersebut. Sayangnya fungsi ini dimanfaatkan oleh pembuat-pembuat virus untuk membuat virus didalam aplikasi tersebut. Walaupun virus ini terdapat didalam aplikasi tertentu tetapi bahaya yang ditimbulkan tidak kalah berbahanya dari virus-virus yang lain.

c. Virus Script/ Batch

Pada awalnya virus ini lebih dikenal dengan virus batch karena dulu terdapat pada file batch yang terdapat pada DOS, sekarang hal ini telah berganti menjadi script. Virus script biasanya sering didapat dari Internet karena kelebihannya yang fleksibel dan bisa berjalan pada saat kita bermain internet, virus jenis ini biasanya menumpang pada file HTML (Hype Text Markup Language) dibuat dengan menggunakan fasilitas script seperti Javascript, VBscript,4 maupun gabungan antara script yang mengaktifkan program Active-X dari Microsoft Internet Explorer.

Berdasarkan yang dilakukan

a. Virus Boot Sector
Virus Boot Sector adalah virus yang memanfaatkan gerbang hubungan antara komputer dan media penyimpan sebagai tempat untuk menularkan virus. Apabila pada boot sector terdapat suatu program yang mampu menyebarkan diri dan mampu tinggal di memory selama komputer bekerja, maka program tersebut dapat disebut virus. Virus boot sector terbagi dua yaitu virus yang menyerang disket dan virus yang menyerang disket dan tabel partisi.
b. Virus File
Virus file merupakan virus yang memafaatkan suatu file yang dapat diproses langsung pada editor DOS, seperti file berekstensi COM, EXE, beberapa file overlay, dan file BATCH. Virus umumnya tidak memiliki kemampuan untuk menyerang di semua file tersebut. Virus file juga dikelompokkan berdasarkan dapat atau tidaknya tingga di memory.
c. Virus System
Virus sistem merupakan virus yang memanfaatkan file-file yang dipakai untuk membuat suatu sistem komputer. Contohnya adalah file dengan berekstensi SYS, file IBMBIO.COM, IBMDOS.COM, atau COMMAND.COM.
d. Virus Hybrid
Virus ini merupakan virus yang mempunyai dua kemampuan biasanya dapat masuk ke boot sector dan juga dapat masuk ke file. Salah satu contoh virus ini adalah virus Mystic yang dibuat di Indonesia.
e. Virus Registry WIndows
Virus ini menginfeksi operating system yang menggunakan Windows 95/98/NT biasanya akan mengadakan infeksi dan manipulasi pada bagian registry Windows sebab registry adalah tempat menampung seluruh informasi komputer baik hardware maupun software. Sehingga setiap kali kita menjalankan Windows maka virus akan dijalankan oleh registry tersebut.
f. Virus Program Aplikasi
Virus ini merupakan virus Macro, menginfeksi pada data suatu program aplikasi tertentu. Virus ini baru akan beraksi apabila kita menjalankan program aplikasi tersebut dan membuka data yang mengandung virus.

Berdasarkan media penyebarannya

a. Penyebaran dengan media fisik
Media yang dimaksudkan bisa dengan disket, CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory), harddisk, dan sebagainya. Untuk CD-ROM, walaupun media ini tidak dapat dibaca tetapi ada kemungkinan suatu CD-ROM mengandung virus tertentu, walaupun kemungkinannya kecil, tetapi seiring dengan berkembangnya alat CD-R/CD-RW yang beredar dipasaran maka kemungkinan adanya virus didalam CD-ROM akan bertambah pula. Untuk saat ini virus jenis ini yang menjadi dominan dari seluruh virus yang ada. Virus ini akan menular pada komputer yang masih belum tertular apabila terjadi pengaksesan pada file/media yang mengandung virus yang diikuti dengan pengaksesan file/media yang masih bersih, dapat juga dengan mengakes file/media yang masih bersih sedangkan di memori komputer terdapat virus yang aktif.

b. Penyebaran dengan Media Internet
Akhir-akhir ini virus yang menyebar dengan media sudah semakin banyak, virus ini biasanya menyebar lewat e-mail ataupun pada saat kita mendownload suatu file yang mengandung virus. Juga ada beberapa virus yang secara otomatis akan menyebarkan dirinya lewat e-mail apabila komputer memiliki hubungan ke jalur internet


Maid Sama! (anime manga)

Maid Sama!, known in Japan as Kaichō wa Maid-sama! (会長はメイド様!, lit. The Student Council President is a Maid!?) is a shōjo manga series by Hiro Fujiwara. It is currently serialized in Hakusensha's monthly shōjo manga magazine, LaLa. There are currently 8 published volumes under the Hana to Yume Comics imprint in Japan.[1] In their Anime Expo 2008 panel, North American publisher Tokyopop announced its various newly licensed series and that Kaichō wa Maid-sama! would be titled Maid-sama!.[2] An anime adaptation began airing on April 1, 2010.[3]

Main article: List of Maid Sama! characters

Seika High School, once an all-boys school notorious for its wild students and for generally being a terrifying place for girls, has recently become a co-ed school. With the female population still a minority and living in fear of the over-the-top antics of the males, Misaki Ayuzawa takes it into her own hands to reform the school and allow the girls to feel safe in the rough environment.

Training, studying and even becoming the first female student council president of the school, Misaki has gained a reputation among the male students body as an uptight boy-hating dictator and as a shining hope for the teachers and fellow female students. However, despite her tough-as-nails appearance, she secretly works part-time at a maid cafe in order to support her family. Unfortunately, her hard-earned reputation is threatened when the popular, attractive, and somewhat impassive Usui Takumi takes an interest in her after discovering her in a maid uniform after school.


Maid Sama! is written and illustrated by Hiro Fujiwara. This series is serialized in Hakusensha shōjo magazine Lala and the serial chapters collected into eleven volume. The first one was released on September 5, 2006,[4] and the eleventh one on August 5, 2010.[5]

Outside Japan, the series was licensed by Tokyopop in North America,[6] and Pika Edition in France.[7]
Cover of Maid-sama! Volume 5 as published by Hakusensha, featuring Misaki Ayuzawa eating Usui Takumi and holding a cake of all the characters of the show in a plate!
No. Japanese English
Release date ISBN Release date ISBN
01 September 5, 2006[4] ISBN 4592184319 April 7, 2009[8] ISBN 978-1-4278-1403-6
02 February 5, 2007[9] ISBN 9784592184324 August 11, 2009[10] ISBN 978-1-4278-1404-3
03 August 4, 2007[11] ISBN 9784592184331 January 12, 2010[12] ISBN 978-1-4278-1405-0
04 December 5, 2007[13] ISBN 9784592184348 April 13, 2010[14] ISBN 978-1-4278-1406-7
05 May 2, 2008[15] ISBN 9784592184355 July 13, 2010[16] ISBN 978-1-4278-1689-4
06 September 5, 2008[17] ISBN 9784592186861 October 12, 2010 (scheduled)[18] ISBN 978-1-4278-1690-0
07 April 3, 2009[19] ISBN 9784592186878 - —
08 September 4, 2009[20] ISBN 9784592186885 - —
09 April 5, 2010[21] ISBN 9784592186892 - —
10 June 4, 2010[22] ISBN 9784592191803 - —
11 August 5, 2010[5] ISBN 9784592191810 - —
This incomplete list is frequently updated to include new information.
See also: List of Maid Sama! episodes

The October 2009 issue of LaLa announced that a television anime adaptation of the series would be produced.[3] It will be broadcasted in TBS and BS-TBS during Spring 2010.[23] The April 2010 issue of LaLa revealed the broadcast date to be on April 1, 2010 at 1:55 midnight. The adaptation was also present at the Tokyo International Anime Fair with Ayumi Fujimura, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Kana Hanazawa and Yū Kobayashi's attendance.[24] The Anime Network has announced that they will stream the series in the U.S. and Canada on their online player, starting with the first episode for premium subscribers premiering on June 15 and for registered members two days after. New episodes will premiere on Thursdays.[25]

The staff list was announced and Hiroaki Sakurai directed the series with series composition done by Mamiko Ikeda who previous worked in the series composition for Emma: A Victorian Romance series and most recently the Rental Magica series and Hanasakeru Seishōnen while the animation character designs by Yuki Imoto and music composed by Tōru Motoyama. The series was animated by J.C.Staff who previously worked on Honey and Clover and Nodame Cantabile.[26] Ayumi Fujimura and Nobuhiko Okamoto took on the role of Misaki Ayuzawa and Takumi Usui respectively.[26]
Drama CDs

A drama CD for Kaichō wa Maid-sama was released in Japan.[citation needed]

1. ^ " Library Service - 会長はメイド様!" (in Japanese). Retrieved October 27, 2009.
2. ^ "Tokyopop Announces New Manga Titles (Update 2)". Anime News Network. July 5, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
3. ^ a b "Kaichou wa Maid-sama! Shōjo Manga Gets TV Anime". Anime News Network. August 21, 2009. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
4. ^ a b "会長はメイド様! 1" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
5. ^ a b "会長はメイド様! 11" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
6. ^ "Maid Sama! Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
7. ^ "Maid sama / Shôjo" (in French). Retrieved August 3, 2010.
8. ^ "Maid Sama! Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
9. ^ "会長はメイド様! 2" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
10. ^ "Maid Sama! Volume 2". Tokyopop. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
11. ^ "会長はメイド様! 3" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
12. ^ "Maid Sama! Volume 3". Tokyopop. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
13. ^ "会長はメイド様! 4" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
14. ^ "Maid Sama! Volume 4". Tokyopop. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
15. ^ "会長はメイド様! 5" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
16. ^ "Maid Sama! Volume 5". Tokyopop. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
17. ^ "会長はメイド様! 6" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
18. ^ "Maid Sama! Volume 6". Tokyopop. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
19. ^ "会長はメイド様! 7" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
20. ^ "会長はメイド様! 8" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
21. ^ "会長はメイド様! 9" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
22. ^ "会長はメイド様! 10" (in Japanese). Hakusensha. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
23. ^
24. ^ "TBSアニメーション・「会長はメイド様!」公式ホームページ / 最新情報 - 10年2月記事" (in Japanese). Tokyo Broadcasting System. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
25. ^ "Anime Network To Begin Streamin Maid Sama On June 15". Anime News Network. June 8, 2010. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
26. ^ a b "TBSアニメーション・「会長はメイド様!」公式ホームページ / スタッフ&キャスト" (in Japanese). Tokyo Broadcasting System. Retrieved March 2, 2010.


Soul Eater (manga)

Soul Eater (ソウルイーター Sōru Ītā?) is a Japanese manga written and illustrated by Atsushi Okubo. Set at the "Death Weapon Meister Academy," the series revolves around three teams consisting of a weapon meister and (at least one) human weapon. Trying to make the latter a "death scythe" and thus fit for use by the academy's headmaster, Shinigami (better known as Death), they must collect the souls of 99 evil humans and one witch, in that order or they will have to restart all over again. The manga is published by Square Enix and was first released as three separate one-shots serialized in two Gangan Powered special editions and one Gangan Wing issue between June 24 and November 26, 2003. The manga started regular serialization in Square Enix's Monthly Shōnen Gangan manga magazine on May 12, 2004.

The first bound volume was released by Square Enix under their Gangan Comics imprint on June 22, 2004 in Japan, and as of July 2010, seventeen volumes have been released. The manga has been licensed for distribution in North America by Yen Press. The English translated version of Soul Eater is serialized in Yen Press' Yen Plus manga anthology magazine starting on July 29, 2008, and the first manga volume was released on October 27, 2009.

A single drama CD was produced on August 31, 2005 which came bundled with an art book. An anime adaptation produced by Bones first aired on TV Tokyo in Japan on April 7, 2008, and contained 51 episodes; Funimation licensed the anime series for North American distribution. An action-adventure video game by Square Enix for the Wii was released in September 2008, and an action video game for the Nintendo DS was released in October 2008. Another action game was released in January 2009 on the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable.

Death Weapon Meister Academy.
See also: List of Soul Eater characters
In Soul Eater, meister (職人 shokunin?) Maka Albarn and her weapon partner Soul Eater are students at the Death Weapon Meister Academy (死神武器職人専門学校 Shinigami Buki Shokunin Senmon Gakkō?)—DWMA (死武専 Shibusen?) or simply the Academy for short—located in the fictional Death City,[1] in Nevada, United States. The school has many other students including Black Star with his weapon partner Tsubaki, and Death the Kid with his weapon partners (who are sisters) Liz and Patty. The school is run by Shinigami, Death himself, as a training facility for weapons and the human wielders of those weapons, the meisters.[1] Maka's goal, along with the other meisters, is to have their weapons defeat and absorb the souls of 99 evil humans and one witch, which will dramatically increase the power of the given weapon and turn them into death scythes, weapons capable of being used by shinigami.[1] In the universe of Soul Eater, witches are powerful beings and the natural enemies of DWMA, as almost all of them have a destructive nature and desire chaos.

Shortly after the start of Soul Eater, Maka and Soul Eater face off against the forces of the witch Medusa, who forces her child, the meister Crona and Crona's weapon Ragnarok, to collect non-evil human souls to transform Crona into a kishin (鬼神?), an evil demon god. Medusa and her cohorts attack the DWMA on the eve of the festival commemorating its founding with the intention of reviving Asura, the first kishin who nearly plunged the entire world into madness before being sealed beneath the DWMA by Shinigami. Despite the combined efforts of Maka, Black Star, and Death the Kid, Medusa's group successfully revives Asura, who leaves to spread chaos around the world after a brief battle with Shinigami. However, Medusa is seemingly killed by the meister and DWMA teacher Franken Stein in the process, while Crona surrenders to the DWMA and goes on to enroll there and befriend Maka.
As a result of Asura's spreading madness, Medusa's older sister Arachne comes out of hiding after 800 years. Arachne reforms her organization Arachnophobia, which poses itself as a serious threat to the DWMA. The DWMA calls in the death scythes around the world to aid in the fight against Arachnophobia. During this time, Medusa resurfaces with her soul in the body of a young girl, and forms a truce with the DWMA so they can annihilate the threat of Arachnophobia together. The DWMA students and Medusa's entourage infiltrate Arachnophobia's headquarters where Maka defeats Arachne, only for Medusa to betray the DWMA, possessing Arachne's body and brainwashing Crona into rejoining her. Meanwhile, Death the Kid is captured by Noah, an enemy posing as the former meister Eibon. Following this, the meister unit Spartoi is formed at the DWMA to take down Noah, and Maka finally succeeds in turning Soul Eater into a death scythe.

Differences in the anime adaptation
The anime series deviates from the manga considerably after episode 35. The anime series faithfully adapts the plot of the manga until after the DWMA's first major battle against Arachnophobia, upon which it deviates from the original plot considerably. After giving the DWMA information on Arachnophobia, Medusa takes advantage of Stein's increasing madness to lure him away with her. The DWMA manage to bring back Stein, and Maka defeats Medusa. Meanwhile, Arachne finds and forms an alliance with Asura, intending to spread his madness across the world. In the ensuing confrontation between the DWMA and Arachnophobia, Shinigami and Asura resume their fight, which ends with Asura defeating Shinigami, turning on Arachne and eating her soul. In the final battle, Maka, Black Star, and Death the Kid defeat Asura, and the world returns to normal.
After the end of his first manga series, B.Ichi, Atsushi Okubo created a one-shot story called "Soul Eater" published in Monthly Shōnen Gangan. Japanese readers were so fascinated by it that Okubo created two other one-shots called "Black Star" and "Death The Kid". The results were high and the editor Gangan Comics asked Atsushi Okubo to create a series from his one-shots that became the introduction chapters to the final manga series Soul Eater.[citation needed]

Atsushi Okubo reveals that he creates the main characters by inspiring from his personality; like the dunce for Black Star, the order for Death The Kid or the fun for Patty. Other characters like protagonists and antagonists are created from his imagination and also from his previous favorite manga, like the sun and the moon smiling over Death City are inspired from his favorite manga Dr. Slump because it used many nonliving objects as if they were humans. Unlike many shōnen manga, Soul Eater's main character is a teenage girl, Maka Albarn, because Okubo felt that readers would be more interested than with a male character. The background and design of Death City, the main town where the characters are living, is mainly inspired from Tim Burton and David Lynch films.[citation needed]
See also: List of Soul Eater chapters
Soul Eater began as a manga series written and illustrated by Atsushi Okubo. The manga initially began as three separate one-shots serialized between June 24, 2003 and November 26, 2003 across two manga magazines published by Square Enix: first in the summer 2003 special edition of Gangan Powered,[2] followed by the autumn 2003 special edition of the same magazine, and finally in Gangan Wing. The manga started regular serialization in Square Enix's Monthly Shōnen Gangan manga magazine on May 12, 2004. The first bound volume was released by Square Enix under their Gangan Comics imprint on June 22, 2004 in Japan, and as of July 22, 2010, seventeen volumes have been released.[3] The manga has been licensed by Yen Press for distribution in English in North America. The manga was initially serialized in Yen Press' Yen Plus anthology magazine, the first issue of which went on sale on July 29, 2008.[4] The first English volume of the manga was sold on October 27, 2009; the second was released on February 23, 2010.[5]
Drama CD
A drama CD was released on August 31, 2005 by Square Enix entitled Soul Eater (Vol. 1): Special Social Studies Field Trip (ソウルイーター(Vol.1)特別社会科見学 Sōru Ītā (Vol. 1) Tokubetsu Shakaika Kengaku?).[3] The CD came bundled with an art book and a script of the CD dialogue. Of the cast used for the drama CD, only Black Star's voice actress Yumiko Kobayashi was retained for the anime voice cast.

See also: List of Soul Eater episodes
A 51 episode anime adaptation was directed by Takuya Igarashi, and produced by Bones, Aniplex, Dentsu, Media Factory, and TV Tokyo; Bones and Aniplex were responsible for the animation and music production respectively.[6][7] The anime's scenario writer was Akatsuki Yamatoya who based the anime's story on Atsushi Okubo original concept. Character design was headed by Yoshiyuki Ito, with overall art direction by Norifumi Nakamura.[6] The anime's conceptual design was done by Shinji Aramaki. The episodes started airing on April 7, 2008 on TV Tokyo, and two animated specials aired on May 29 and June 1, 2008.[8] The episodes also aired at later dates on TV Aichi, TV Hokkaido, TV Osaka, TV Setouchi, and TVQ Kyushu Broadcasting Co.[6] The final episode aired on March 30, 2009. The first DVD compilation volume was released on August 22, 2008 with the first three episodes. The second DVD compilation volume was released on September 25, 2008 with episodes four through seven. Each DVD volume will be released in monthly intervals.[9] The anime was licensed by Funimation and will be releasing the series in four half-season DVD box sets starting with the first volume in February 2010.[10] All 51 subtitled episodes are available on Funimation's website, along with the first twenty-four episodes dubbed in English. Soul Eater is Bones' third anime series to run with 50-51 episodes, after 2003's Fullmetal Alchemist and 2005's Eureka Seven.
The anime was regularly broadcast Mondays at 6:00 pm on TV Tokyo. The official Japanese website of the Soul Eater anime series announced that each episode will air in two different versions: the regular Monday 6:00 p.m. version and a late-night "Soul Eater Late Show" version. Special footage was added at the start and end of the commercial break; the next episode preview was also different from the regular version. The dual broadcast of this supernatural action series was being billed as the "world's first evening and late-night resonance broadcast". The "resonance" term refers to a story concept in which the characters, such as the heroine Maka and her living weapon partner Soul Eater, achieve maximum power by synchronizing their souls.[11] MTV Portugal premiered Soul Eater on February 1, 2010.[12] In the Philippines, Soul Eater aired in a Tagalog version over the cable channel Hero TV which will last from April to June 2010.
Video games
Soul Eater: Monotone Princess (ソウルイーター モノトーン プリンセス Sōru Ītā Monotōn Purinsesu?), an action-adventure video game exclusively for the Wii and developed by Square Enix with Bones was released on September 25, 2008.[13] in Japan only. Grimoire (グリモア Gurimoa?) and Ponera (ポネラ Ponera?) are two original playable characters exclusive for the game designed by the author, Atsushi Okubo. Ponera is the Monotone Princess and Grimoire is known as Noah in the manga. Soul Eater: Plot of Medusa (ソウルイーター メデューサの陰謀 Sōru Ītā Medyūsa no Inbō?) is an action game produced by Namco Bandai Games for the Nintendo DS and was released on October 23, 2008.[14] Soul Eater: Battle Resonance (ソウルイーター バトルレゾナンス Sōru Ītā Batoru Rezonansu?) is a fighting game produced by Namco Bandai Games for the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable and was released on January 29, 2009.
Six pieces of theme music are used for the episodes; two opening themes and four closing themes. The first opening theme is "Resonance" by T.M.Revolution for the first thirty episodes, and the single was released on June 11, 2008. The second opening theme is "Papermoon" by Tommy heavenly6 from episode thirty-one onwards; the single was released on December 10, 2008 by DefStar Records. The first closing theme is "I Wanna Be" by Stance Punks for the first thirteen episodes, and the fifty-first episode; the single was released on June 4, 2008. The second closing theme is "Style" by Kana Nishino from episode fourteen to twenty-six; the single was released on August 13, 2008 by Sony Music Entertainment Japan. The third closing theme is "Bakusō Yume Uta" (爆走夢歌?) by Soul'd Out's Diggy-Mo from episode twenty-seven to thirty-nine; the single was released on November 26, 2008 by Sony Music Entertainment Japan. The final closing theme is "Strength" by Abingdon Boys School from episode forty through episode fifty; the single was released on February 25, 2009.[15][16]
The first character song maxi single sung by Chiaki Omigawa (Maka) and Kōki Uchiyama (Soul) was released on August 6, 2008 by Aniplex. The second single by Yumiko Kobayashi (Black Star) and Kaori Nazuka (Tsubaki) was released on September 3, 2008, and the third single by Mamoru Miyano (Kid), Akeno Watanabe (Liz), and Narumi Takahira (Patty) was released on October 1, 2008. Two original soundtracks for the anime were released on August 27, 2008 and March 18, 2009 by Aniplex. The theme song for Soul Eater: Monotone Princess is "Soul's Crossing" sung by T.M.Revolution, and is included on the "Resonance" single.[17]
1. ^ a b c "Story section at anime's official website" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2008-04-20.
2. ^ "Summer 2003 issue of Gangan Powered" (in Japanese). Square Enix. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
3. ^ a b "Books section at manga's official website" (in Japanese). Square Enix. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
4. ^ "Yen Press Announces Titles to Run in Anthology Mag". Anime News Network. 2008-04-19. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
5. ^ "Soul Eater manga English volumes". Yen Press. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
6. ^ a b c "Soul Eater (TV)". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2008-04-14.
7. ^ "TV Tokyo: Soul Eater - Staff, Cast" (in Japanese). TV Tokyo. Retrieved 2008-04-14.
8. ^ "Two Soul Eater Anime Specials to Air in Japan". Anime News Network. 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
9. ^ "Goods section at the anime's official website" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2008-06-02.
10. ^ "FUNimation Adds Soul Eater Anime from Media Factory". Anime News Network. 2008-12-31. Retrieved 2008-12-31.
11. ^ "Soul Eater to Air in Japan in Two Weekly Versions". Anime News Network. 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
12. ^ "Soul Eater Episodios [Soul Eater Episodes]" (in Portuguese). MTV Portugal. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
13. ^ "Soul Eater: Monotone Princess Released Date and Price Confirmed!" (in Japanese). ASCII Media Works. 2008-06-20. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
14. ^ "D-pad and Touch Pen Resonance Operation Soul Eater: Plot of Medusa to Be Sold This Autumn" (in Japanese). ASCII Media Works. 2008-06-20. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
15. ^ "Abingdon Boys School's "Strength" single". CD Japan. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
16. ^ "Music section at anime's official website" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2008-04-20.
17. ^ "T.M.R to Sing the Theme Song for the Soul Eater Wii Game!" (in Japanese). ASCII Media Works. 2008-05-12. Retrieved 2008-06-04.


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