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Pokémon

Pokémon (ポケモン Pokemon?, English pronunciation: /ˈpoʊkeɪmɑːn/, POH-kay-mahn) is a media franchise published and owned by the video game company Nintendo and created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1996. Originally released as a pair of interlinkable Game Boy role-playing video games, Pokémon has since become the second most successful and lucrative video game-based media franchise in the world, behind only Nintendo's own Mario series Pokémon properties have since been merchandised into anime, manga, trading cards, toys, books, and other media. The franchise celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2006, and as of 28 May 2010 (2010 -05-28), cumulative sales of the video games (including home console versions, such as the "Pikachu" Nintendo 64) have reached more than 200 million copies The name Pokémon is the romanized contraction of the Japanese brand Pocket Monsters (ポケットモンスター Poketto Monsutā?), as such contractions are quite common in Japan. The term "Pokémon", in addition to referring to the Pokémon franchise itself, also collectively refers to the 649 fictional species that have made appearances in Pokémon media as of the release of the Pokémon role-playing game (RPG) for the Nintendo DS, Pokémon Black and White. Like the words deer and sheep, the word "Pokémon" is identical in both the singular and plural, as is each individual species name; in short, it is grammatically correct to say both "one Pokémon" and "many Pokémon" as well as "one Pikachu" and "many Pikachu". In November 2005, 4Kids Entertainment, which had managed the non-game related licensing of Pokémon, announced that it had agreed not to renew the Pokémon representation agreement. Pokémon USA Inc. (now The Pokémon Company International), a subsidiary of Japan's Pokémon Co., now oversees all Pokémon licensing outside of Asia.


The Pokémon anime series and films are a meta-series of adventures separate from the canon that most of the Pokémon video games follow (with the exception of Pokémon Yellow, a game based loosely on the anime storyline). The anime follows the quest of the main character, Ash Ketchum[22] (known as Satoshi in Japan) a Pokémon Master in training, as he and a small group of friends[22] travel around the fictitious world of Pokémon along with their Pokémon partners. The original series, titled Pocket Monsters, or simply Pokémon in western countries (often referred to as Pokémon: Gotta Catch 'Em All to distinguish it from the later series), begins with Ash's first day as a Pokémon trainer. His first (and signature) Pokémon is a Pikachu, differing from the games, where only Bulbasaur, Charmander, or Squirtle could be chosen. The series follows the storyline of the original games, Pokémon Red and Blue, in the region of Kanto. Accompanying Ash on his journeys are Brock, the Pewter City Gym Leader, and Misty, the youngest of the Gym Leader sisters from Cerulean City. Pokémon: Adventures in the Orange Islands follows Ash's adventures in the Orange Islands, a place unique to the anime, and replaces Brock with Tracey Sketchit, an artist and "Pokémon watcher". The next series, based on the second generation of games, include Pokémon: Johto Journeys, Pokémon: Johto League Champions, and Pokémon: Master Quest, following the original trio of Ash, Brock, and Misty in the western Johto region.

The saga continues in Pokémon: Advanced Battle, based on the third generation games. Ash and company travel to Hoenn, a southern region in the Pokémon World. Ash takes on the role of a teacher and mentor for a novice Pokémon trainer named May. Her brother Max accompanies them, and though he isn't a trainer, he knows large amounts of handy information. Brock (from the original series) soon catches up with Ash, but Misty has returned to Cerulean City to tend to her duties as a gym leader (Misty, along with other recurring characters, appears in the spin-off series Pokémon Chronicles). The Advanced Battle series concludes with the Battle Frontier saga, based on the Emerald version and including aspects of FireRed and LeafGreen. The Advanced Generation series ended with Max leaving to pick his starter Pokémon, and May going to the Grand Festival in Johto.

In the Diamond and Pearl series, baded on the fourth generation games, Ash, Brock, and a new companion, an aspiring Pokémon coordinator named Dawn traveled through the region of Sinnoh. In the end of the series, Ash and Brock returned to their home region where Brock started to follow his newfound dream of becoming a Pokémon doctor himself.

Pokémon: Best Wishes!, based on the fifth generation games, Pokémon Black and White, is the newest installment of the Pokémon anime series currently being broadcast only in Japan. It features Ash and Pikachu traveling through the region of Isshu along two new companions, Iris and Dent. Both characters appear in the games as gym leaders, but so far, only Dent has been shown as one in the anime series.

In addition to the TV series, thirteen Pokémon films have been made, with a fourteenth film in the making. Collectible bonuses, such as promotional trading cards, have been available with some of the films.

Films

Given release dates are the original Japanese release dates.

  1. Pokémon: The First Movie (1998)
  2. Pokémon: The Movie 2000 (1999)
  3. Pokémon 3: The Movie (2000)
  4. Pokémon 4Ever (2001)
  5. Pokémon Heroes (2002)
  6. Pokémon: Jirachi Wish Maker (2003)
  7. Pokémon: Destiny Deoxys (2004)
  8. Pokémon: Lucario and the Mystery of Mew (2005)
  9. Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea (2006)
  10. Pokémon: The Rise of Darkrai (2007)
  11. Pokémon: Giratina and the Sky Warrior (2008)
  12. Pokémon: Arceus and the Jewel of Life (2009)
  13. Pokémon: Zoroark: Master of Illusions (2010)
  14. Pocket Monsters Best Wishes: Victini and the Black Hero: Zekrom (2011)

Soundtracks

There have been several Pokémon CDs that have been released in North America, most of them in conjunction with the theatrical releases of the first three Pokémon films. These releases were commonplace until late 2001. On March 27, 2007, a tenth anniversary CD was released containing 18 tracks from the English dub; this was the first English-language release in over five years. Soundtracks of the Pokémon feature films have been released in Japan each year in conjunction with the theatrical releases.

Year Title
June 29, 1999 Pokémon 2.B.A. Master
November 9, 1999 Pokémon: The First Movie
February 8, 2000 Pokémon World
May 9, 2000 Pokémon: The First Movie Original Motion Picture Score
July 18, 2000 Pokémon: The Movie 2000
2000 Pokémon: The Movie 2000 Original Motion Picture Score
January 23, 2001 Totally Pokémon
April 3, 2001 Pokémon 3: The Ultimate Soundtrack
October 9, 2001 Pokémon Christmas Bash
March 27, 2007 Pokémon X

Pokémon Trading Card Game

Palkia, the Spacial Pokémon Trading Card Game card from Pokémon TCG Diamond and Pearl

The Pokémon Trading Card Game is a collectible card game with a goal similar to a Pokémon battle in the video game series. Players use Pokémon cards, with individual strengths and weaknesses, in an attempt to defeat their opponent by "knocking out" his or her Pokémon cards. The game was first published in North America by Wizards of the Coast in 1999. However, with the release of Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire Game Boy Advance video games, The Pokémon Company took back the card game from Wizards of the Coast and started publishing the cards themselves. The Expedition expansion introduced the Pokémon-e Trading Card Game, where the cards (for the most part) were compatible with the Nintendo e-Reader. Nintendo discontinued its production of e-Reader compatible cards with the release of EX FireRed & LeafGreen. In 1998, Nintendo released a Game Boy Color version of the trading card game in Japan; Pokémon Trading Card Game was subsequently released to the US and Europe in 2000. The game included digital versions cards from the original set of cards and the first two expansions (Jungle and Fossil), as well as several cards exclusive to the game. A Japan-exclusive sequel was released in 2001.

Manga

There are various Pokémon manga series, four of which were released in English by Viz Media, and seven of them released in English by Chuang Yi. The manga differs greatly from the video games and cartoons in that the trainers, though frowned upon, were able to kill the opponent's Pokémon.

Manga released in English
Manga not released in English
  • Pokémon Card ni Natta Wake (How I Became a Pokémon Card) by Kagemaru Himeno, an artist for the TCG. There are six volumes and each includes a special promotional card. The stories tell the tales of the art behind some of Himeno’s cards.
  • Pokémon Get aa ze! by Miho Asada
  • Pocket Monsters Chamo-Chamo ★ Pretty ♪ by Yumi Tsukirino, who also made Magical Pokémon Journey.
  • Pokémon Card Master
  • Pocket Monsters Emerald Chōsen!! Battle Frontier by Ihara Shigekatsu
  • Pocket Monsters Zensho by Satomi Nakamura

Criticism and controversy

Morality

Pokémon has been criticized by some Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Christian concerns over Pokémon have primarily addressed perceived occult and violent themes as well as the concept of "Pokémon evolution" (which some relate to the theory of evolution), which is said to go against the Biblical creation account in Genesis, which the majority of Japanese, not adhering to Christianity, do not believe in. The Vatican, however, has countered that the Pokémon trading card game and video games are "full of inventive imagination" and have no "harmful moral side effects". In the United Kingdom, the "Christian Power Cards" game was introduced in 1999 by David Tate who stated, "Some people aren't happy with Pokémon and want an alternative, others just want Christian games." The game was similar to the Pokémon TCG but used Biblical figures. In 1999, Nintendo stopped manufacturing the Japanese version of the "Koga's Ninja Trick" trading card because it depicted a clockwise manji. The Jewish civil rights group Anti-Defamation League complained because the symbol is the reverse of a swastika, which is considered offensive to Jewish people. The cards were intended for sale in Japan, but the popularity of Pokémon led to importation in to the United States with approval from Nintendo. The Anti-Defamation League understood that the issue symbol was not intended to offend and acknowledged the sensitivity Nintendo that showed by removing the product. In 2001, Saudi Arabia banned Pokémon games and cards, alleging that the franchise promoted Zionism in violation of Muslim doctrine. Pokémon has been accused of promoting materialism. In 1999, two nine-year-old boys sued Nintendo because they claimed the Pokémon Trading Card Game caused their problematic gambling.

Health

On December 16, 1997, more than 635 Japanese children were admitted to hospitals with epileptic seizures. It was determined the seizures were caused by watching an episode of Pokémon "Dennō Senshi Porygon", (most commonly translated "Electric Soldier Porygon", season 1, episode 38); as a result, this episode has not been aired since. In this particular episode, there were bright explosions with rapidly alternating blue and red color patterns. It was determined in subsequent research that these strobing light effects cause some individuals to have epileptic seizures, even if the person had no previous history of epilepsy. This incident is the most common focus of Pokémon-related parodies in other media, and was lampooned by The Simpsons episode "Thirty Minutes over Tokyo" and the South Park episode "Chinpokomon", among others.

Monster in My Pocket

In March 2000, Morrison Entertainment Group, a small toy developer based at Manhattan Beach, California, sued Nintendo over claims that Pokémon infringed on its own "Monster in My Pocket" characters. A judge ruled there was no infringement so Morrison appealed the ruling in November 2001.

Cultural influence

Pokémon, being a popular franchise, has undoubtedly left its mark on pop culture. The Pokémon characters themselves have become pop culture icons; examples include two different Pikachu balloons in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, Pokémon Jets operated by All Nippon Airways, thousands of merchandise items, and a theme park in Nagoya, Japan in 2005 and Taipei in 2006. Pokémon also appeared on the cover of the U.S. magazine Time in 1999. The Comedy Central show Drawn Together has a character named Ling-Ling which is a direct parody of Pikachu. Several other shows such as ReBoot, The Simpsons, South Park, The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy, Robot Chicken,All Grown Up! and Johnny Test have made references and spoofs of Pokémon, among other series. Pokémon was also featured on VH1's I Love the '90s: Part Deux. A live action show called Pokémon Live! toured the United States in late 2000. It was based on the popular Pokémon anime, but had some continuity errors relating to it. Jim Butcher cites Pokémon as one of the inspirations for the Codex Alera series of novels.

In November 2001, Nintendo opened a store called the Pokémon Center in New York, in New York's Rockefeller Center, modeled after the two other Pokémon Center stores in Tokyo and Osaka and named after a staple of the videogame series; Pokémon Centers are fictional buildings where Trainers take their injured Pokémon to be healed after combat. The store sold Pokémon merchandise on a total of two floors, with items ranging from collectible shirts to stuffed Pokémon plushies. The store also featured a Pokémon Distributing Machine in which players would place their game to receive an egg of a Pokémon that is being given out at that time. The store also had tables that were open for players of the Pokémon Trading Card Game to duel each other or an employee. The store was closed and replaced by the Nintendo World Store on May 14, 2005.

Joseph Jay Tobin theorizes that the success of the franchise was mainly due to the long list of names that could be learned by children and repeated in their peer groups. The rich fictional universe provided a lot of opportunities for discussion and demonstration of knowledge in front of their peers. In the French version Nintendo took care to translate the name of the creatures so that they reflected the French culture and language. In all cases the names of the creatures were linked to its characteristics, which converged with the children's belief that names have symbolic power. Children could pick their favourite Pokémon and affirm their individuality while at the same time affirming their conformance to the values of the group, and they could distinguish themselves from other kids by asserting what they liked and what they didn't like from every chapter. Pokémon gained popularity because it provided a sense of identity to a wide variety of children, and lost it quickly when many of those children found that the identity groups were too big and searched for identities that would distinguish them into smaller groups.

In December 2009, a "Pokémon profile picture month" on popular social networking website Facebook started, with over 100,000 (by some estimates) Facebook users changing the image displayed on their profile webpages to that of a favorite Pokémon. In 2010, more than 252,000 people replied as "attending", or taking part in, the event, at least double the previous year.

Pokémon's history has been marked at times by rivalry with the Digimon media franchise that debuted at a similar time. Described as "the other 'mon'" by IGN's Juan Castro, Digimon has not enjoyed Pokémon's level of international popularity or success, but has maintained a dedicated fanbase. IGN's Lucas M. Thomas stated that Pokémon is Digimon's "constant competition and comparison", attributing the former's relative success to the simplicity of its evolution mechanic as opposed to Digivolution. The two have been noted for conceptual and stylistic similarities by sources such as GameZone. A debate among fans exists over which of the two franchises came first. In actuality, the first Pokémon media, Pokémon Red and Green, were released initially on February 27, 1996; whereas the Digimon virtual pet was released on June 26, 1997.

See also

References

Books
  • Tobin, Joseph, ed. Pikachu's Global Adventure: The Rise and Fall of Pokémon. Duke University Press., February, 2004. ISBN 0-8223-3287-6
Notes
  1. ^ Sora Ltd.. Super Smash Bros. Brawl. (Nintendo). Wii. (March 9, 2008) "(Announcer's dialog after the character Pokémon Trainer is selected (voice acted))"
  2. ^ Boyes, Emma (January 10, 2007). "UK paper names top game franchises". GameSpot. GameSpot UK. http://www.gamespot.com/news/6164012.html. Retrieved February 26, 2007.
  3. ^ "Pokemon 10-Year Retrospective". IGN. http://ds.ign.com/articles/735/735858p1.html. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
  4. ^ Nintendo (May 29, 2010). "Pokémon Black Version and Pokémon White Version for Nintendo DS coming to Europe in Spring 2011". Press release. http://nintendo.co.uk/NOE/en_GB/news/2010/pokmon_black_version_and_pokmon_white_version_for_nintendo_ds_coming_to_europe_in_spring_2011_17844.html. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  5. ^ Swider, Matt. "The Pokemon Series Pokedex @ Gaming Target". Gaming Target. Gaming Target. http://www.gamingtarget.com/article.php?artid=6531. Retrieved February 28, 2007.
  6. ^ "Pokemon USA Moves Licensing In-House", Gamasutra.
  7. ^ ""The Ultimate Game Freak: Interview with Satoshi Tajiri". Time. November 22, 1999. Archived from the original on March 14, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20050314021722/http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/99/1122/pokemon6.fullinterview1.html. Retrieved May 22, 2010. ", TimeAsia (Waybacked).
  8. ^ MacDonald, Mark; Brokaw, Brian; Arnold; J. Douglas; Elies, Mark. Pokémon Trainer's Guide. Sandwich Islands Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-439-15404-9. (pg73)
  9. ^ "Pokémon Green Info on GameFAQs" gamefaqs.com. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
  10. ^ Lucas M. Thomas (April 4, 2007). "The Countdown to Diamond and Pearl, Part 4". IGN. http://au.ds.ign.com/articles/778/778464p1.html. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
  11. ^ "Cubed3 Pokémon Battle Revolution Confirmed for Wii" and soon Pokémon Mystery Dungeon 2: Darkness Exploration Team, and Time Exploration Team Cubed3.com. Retrieved June 7, 2006.
  12. ^ "「ポケットモンスター」シリーズ最新作 2009年秋 ニンテンドーDSで発売決定!" (in Japanese). Nintendo. http://www.pokemon.co.jp/info/game/g090508_01.html. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
  13. ^ "『ポケットモンスターブラック・ホワイト』公式サイト | ポケットモンスターオフィシャルサイト" (in Japanese). http://www.pokemon.co.jp/bw/index.html. Retrieved April 9, 2010.
  14. ^ "『ポケットモンスター』シリーズ完全新作 2010年内発売に向けて開発中! | ゲーム関連 | ニュース | ポケットモンスターオフィシャルサイト" (in Japanese). January 29, 2010. http://www.pokemon.co.jp/info/game/g100129_02.html. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  15. ^ Brian Ashcraft (Jan 28, 2010). ""Entirely New" Pokemon Series Coming This Year – Japan – Kotaku". Kotaku. http://kotaku.com/5459349/entirely-new-pokemon-series-coming-this-year. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  16. ^ "商品情報 | 『ポケットモンスターブラック・ホワイト』公式サイト". http://www.pokemon-sp.jp/series/bw/#/product. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
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  18. ^ "Webで広がる遊び | 『ポケットモンスターブラック・ホワイト』公式サイト" (in Japanese). Nintendo. http://www.pokemon-sp.jp/series/bw/#/connection/connection03.html. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  19. ^ Pokémon Ruby review (page 1) Gamespy.com. Retrieved May 30, 2006.
  20. ^ Pokémon Yellow Critical Review Ign.com. Retrieved March 27, 2006.
  21. ^ Official Pokémon Scenario Guide Diamond and Pearl version p. 30-31
  22. ^ a b Pokémon anime overview Psypokes.com. Retrieved May 25, 2006.
  23. ^ Pokémon 10th Anniversary, Vol. 1 – Pikachu, Viz Video., June 6, 2006. ASIN B000F4PDE4
  24. ^ "Pokémon 2.B.A. Master Soundtrack CD". http://www.cduniverse.com/search/xx/music/pid/1285647/a/2.B.A.+Master.htm. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
  25. ^ "Pokémon: The First Movie Soundtrack CD". http://www.cduniverse.com/search/xx/music/pid/1097954/a/Pokemon:+The+First+Movie.htm. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
  26. ^ "Pokémon Trading Card Game "How to play" guide". Archived from the original on May 22, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070522120208/http://www.pokemon-tcg.com/p_strategy/rulebooks/book_68.jsp. Pokemon-tcg.com. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  27. ^ a b Pokémon Trading Card Game News; "Pokémon Ruby & Sapphire TCG Releases" Wizards.com. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  28. ^ "Pokemon Card GB2 info on GameFAQs". Retrieved June 8, 2008.
  29. ^ Carder, Thomas A. Pokemon: The Movie (1999).ChildCare Action Project: 1999
  30. ^ "Japan's Religion and Philosophy (Shinto, Buddhism, Christianity, Religion in Japan Today)". Asianinfo.org. http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/japan/religion.htm. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
  31. ^ Religion in Japan
  32. ^ Silverman, Stephen M. Pokemon Gets Religion. People
  33. ^ Pokémon trumped by pocket saints. BBC: June 27, 2000.
  34. ^ "Koga's Ninja Trick". Bulbapedia. http://bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net/wiki/Koga%27s_Ninja_Trick_%28Gym_Challenge_115%29. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  35. ^ Fitzgerald, Jim. Fitzgerald, Jim (December 3, 1999). "'Swastika' Pokemon card dropped". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071211235110/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4155/is_19991203/ai_n13847438.
  36. ^ "Saudi bans Pokemon". CNN. Archived from the original on January 18, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080118135529/http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/meast/03/26/saudi.pokemon/. [dead link]. March 26, 2001, CNN.com. Retrieved on July 22, 2007.
  37. ^ "Saudi Arabia bans Pokemon". BBC News. March 26, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1243307.stm. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
  38. ^ Ramlow, Todd R. Pokemon, or rather, Pocket Money. Popmatters: 2000
  39. ^ Crowley, Kieran. "Lawsuit Slams Pokemon As Bad Bet for Addicted Kids". Archived from the original on October 22, 2000. http://web.archive.org/web/20001022030204/http://www.nypost.com/news/14579.htm. . New York Post: October 1999
  40. ^ Pokemon packs a punch. Retrieved January 7, 2007.
  41. ^ ""Color Changes in TV Cartoons Cause Seizures". Archived from the original on November 8, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20041108175456/http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/06/990601080722.htm. ", ScienceDaily (Waybacked).
  42. ^ "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo". The Simpsons Archive. http://www.snpp.com/episodes/AABF20. Retrieved July 16, 2008.
  43. ^ "South Park Goes Global: Reading Japan in Pokemon". University of Auckland. http://google.com/search?q=cache:wZfySARP7DMJ:www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/FileGet.cfm%3FID%3D1cff12f4-03a2-4126-b886-16b7669da213+south+park+pokemon+parody&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=us&client=firefox-a. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  44. ^ Bronstad, Amanda (November 12, 2001). "Toy Firm Will Appeal 'Pocket Monster' Suit". Los Angeles Business Journal (FindArticles.com). Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071015132351/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m5072/is_46_23/ai_80165415. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
  45. ^ "Pokemon Sightings and Rip-offs". http://trsrockin.com/ripoffs.html. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
  46. ^ Opening Date of Store
  47. ^ Information on the Store
  48. ^ Tour Site Page
  49. ^ Manhattan Living Page On Store
  50. ^ Joseph Jay Tobin (2004). Pikachu's global adventure: the rise and fall of Pokémon. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822332876, 9780822332879. http://books.google.com/books?lr=&hl=ca&id=U7hthImoc5AC&q=naming&pa=193#v=snippet&q=naming&f=false.
  51. ^ Pokemon Profile Pic December (2009)
  52. ^ "Pokemon Profile Picture Month". Facebook. 2010. http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=347947515181. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  53. ^ Castro, Juan (May 20, 2005). "E3 2005: Digimon World 4". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/617/617917p1.html. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
  54. ^ Thomas, Lucas M. (August 21, 2009). "Cheers & Tears: DS Fighting Games". IGN. http://ds.ign.com/articles/101/1015325p2.html. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
  55. ^ Bedigian, Louis (July 12, 2002). "Digimon World 3 Review". GameZone. http://psx.gamezone.com/gzreviews/r19874.htm. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  56. ^ DeVries, Jack (November 22, 2006). "Digimon World DS Review". IGN. http://ds.ign.com/articles/747/747449p1.html. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  57. ^ "Related Games". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/gameboy/rpg/pokemonred/similar.html?mode=versions. Retrieved May 8, 2010.

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