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Friday

Cara membudidayakan ayam petelur

Untuk memulai pembudidayaan ayam petelur para peternak harus mempersiapkan kandang untuk anakan. Ventilasi kandang merupakan hal yang sangat penting dalam menentukan tinggi rendahnya suhu di dalam kandang. Beberapa ventilasi sebaiknya disediakan penutupnya. Pada musim dingin, semua ventilasi yang menghadap pada arah angin masuk terutama yang dekat lantai hendaknya ditutup. Sedangkan pada musim panas, bukalah ventilasi selebar-lebarnya agar udara segar masuk sebanyak-banyaknya. Disamping penyakit stres, ayam yang berada dalam tempat yang terlalu panas karena sistem ventilasi yang buruk, akan menyebabkan ayam tidak mau makan atau minum secara normal. Akibatnya ayam akan cacat dan bagi ayam petelur tidak akan tumbuh dengan baik atau kerdil. Kandang harus aman dari gangguan kucing, tikus, serta binatang pemangsa lainnya. Sebelum anak ayam tiba, Anda harus yakin betul bahwa Anda telah siap menerimanya. Kandang dan semua peralatan telah dibersihkan dan disemprot anti hama. Pekerjaan tersebut sudah harus selesai beberapa hari menjelang anak ayam tiba sehingga kandang benar-benar telah kering pada saat anak ayam tiba.

Biasakan membeli anak ayam yang berkualitas sesuai kebutuhan. Untuk ayam petelur, belilah anak ayam betina yang telah diseleksi kelaminnya (sexed pullet). Untuk jenis rasnya pilihlah Leghorn atau Rhode Island Red atau ayam lainnya yang masuk dalam katagori sebagai ayam petelur yang baik. Sebelum melakukan pemesanan bibit atau secara langsung membeli bibit ayam hendaknya data atau segala keterangan mengenai bibit yang akan dibeli di kumpulkan terlebih dahulu baik melalui peternak yang sudah memelihara bibit tersebut, melalui pembibitnya sendiri, melelui agen yang telah ditunjuk oleh Dinas Peternakan satempat sehingga dapatlah diperoleh segala keterangan mengenai keunggulan dan kelemahan dari bibit tersebut.

Anak ayam memerlukan pakan berkualitas tinggi agar tumbuh dengan prima. Pakan yang mengandung nutrisi seimbang dapat diperoleh dari toko makanan ayam. Berikan pakan “starter” untuk anak ayam selama tiga minggu pertama dan kemudian disambung dengan “grower” sampai berumur 10 minggu. Bagi ayam petelur, berikan pakan “developer” pada umur 10 sampai 20 minggu. Setelah lewat 20 minggu, berikan pakan “laying mash” agar dapat menghasilkan tingkat produksi telur yang tinggi dengan kualitas telur yang baik.

Hindari pemberian pakan tambahan selain pakan seperti yang disebutkan di atas. Menu pakan starter, grower, developer, dan layer diformulasikan dan dirancang sebagai satu-satunya pakan untuk makanan ayam. Apabila makanan tambahan diberikan, ayam cenderung untuk mengurangi mengkonsumsi pakan komplit yang seharusnya dengan adanya makanan tambahan tadi, dan akhirnya mereka tidak menerima jumlah nutrisi yang semestinya. Akibatnya ayam menjadi kekurangan gizi dan tingkat pertumbuhannya atau produksi telurnya akan menurun, dan kemudian mati. Usahakan air minum pada kandang selalu tersedia dan juga bersih.

Selain nutrisi makanan yang di butuhkan oleh ayam petelur, vaksinasi juga perlu untuk menunjang kesehatan ayam petelur. Agar terhindar dari serangan penyakit yang dapat menyebabkan ayam mati. Vaksinasi ini dilakukan berkala dengan aturan tertentu untuk mendapatkan asil yang maksimal.

Kandang untuk ayam yang siap bertelur harus di persiapan dengan kapasitas yang di butuhkan. Apabila menginginkan perluasan hendaknya menunggu sampai ayam petelur afkir telebih dahulu supaya ayam tidak tergangu dan menjadi stress. Kandang baterai dapat menjadi alternatif untuk kandang. Kandang ini dapat menghemat tempat. Di kandang baterai ayam petelur dipelihara secara individu dalam satu kandang. Karena masing-masing hidup terpisah sehingga ayam tidak saling mematuk dan terhindar dari luka. Kalaupun ada ayam terjangkit penyakit menular, penyebarannya ke ayam lain semakin lambat.

Kandang baterai ini sangat potensial untuk ayam petelur karena menghemat tempat dan juga dapat meminimalisir penyebaran penyakit. Selain itu dapat memaksimalkan pakan yang diberikan karena kandang ayam individu.

Thursday

Sahabat itu Apa?

Mungkin kata orang sahabat itu adalah seseorang yang selalu ada saat kamu sedang sedih atau pun duka. Tetapi bisa lebih dari itu karena dia bisa mengerti apa yang dirasakan oleh kita. 'sahabat' sebuah kata yang menandakan bahwa manusia adalah makhluk sosial namun demikian besar arti sebenarnya dari sebuah persahabatan sehingga membuat hidup begitu berarti. Kadang sahabat dapat membuat hari-hari yang kita lalui benar-benar indah dan memiliki banyak cerita, namun kadang juga sahabat membuat kenangan terburuk untuk kita sepanjang hidup.

Tetapi kadang kala juga sahabat bisa berakhir indah atau bisa juga buruk, "camkan itu" 'sok iyeuh' hahaha..

Dan butuh waktu yang lama untuk membangun sebuah persahabatan, tetapi hanya butuh waktu singkat untuk menghancurkannya maka jagalah tali persaudaraan itu.

Mungkin juga sahabat yang berlawan jenis bisa menjadikan tumbuh nya benih - benih cinta sehingga menjadi sepasang kekasih kayak lagu ''Zigaz - Sahabat jadi Cinta''. Ketika hal itu terjadi mungkin banyak kecocokan yang telah dirasakan oleh kedua orang itu. Akan tetapi tak banyak pasangan yang gagal dalam proses percintaan nya sehingga dari cinta menjadi benci. Maka untuk menghidari kejadian itu mungkin kita harus saling memahami dan toleransi kepada pasangan. Adakala nya satu pasangan butuh kesendirian untuk diri nya sediri maka harus mengerti!!! Karna terjalinnya suatu hubungan itu biasa nya di dasari oleh kepercayaan, dan saling memahami.


Hanya Jeritan Hati Menjadi Petani

Pertanian merupakan istilah yang sudah bosan di bahas untuk menanggulangi ketahan pangan nasional maupun internasional. Meski ketahanan pangan di tingkat kan pasti masih kurang karena sifat manusia yang tak kan puas setelah mendapat kan sesuatu dia pengen yang lebih lagi dari apa yang di dapat sebelumnya. Banyak orang yang jago cakap nya tapi mana realita nya dan itu hanya ada di Indonesia. Memang bener juga orang Indonesia pandai – pandai tapi mereka terlalu

pandai sampai tak mau hidup susah di negara kelahiran nya padahal pribahasa mengatakan lebih baik hujan batu di kampung sendiri daripada hujan emas di kampung orang. Mungkin faktor moral lah yang harus di perhatikan di negara ini. Negara yang kuat berawal dari warga negara yang bermoral kuat. Maka hal penerapan moral harus diterapkan di instansi pendidikan itu harus lebih ketat lagi. Mungkin saya ini berbicara ngawur, tapi inilah uneg’’ saya tentang pertanian . coba anda lihat para petani ‘’jangan hanya bicara kami butuh tindakan kata petani’’ mereka berkerja dari subuh sampai tenggelam nya matahari tetapi hasil yang di dapat untuk kebutuhan ekonominya masih di bilang kurang walaupun begitu mereka tetap bersyukur, di banding dengan golongan atas hanya memikirkan bagaimana cara memproduksi lebih banya tanpa memikirkan kondisi di bawah. Ketidaksingkronan itu membuat perbedaan kelas di masyarakat.

Klasfikasi Ilmiah Saat Bio Cendawan

Klasifikasi Ilmiah

Domain : Eukariota Ade Azis Kusnaya

Kerajan : Chlromalveolata A34100097

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a6/Symptom_potato_late_blight.jpg/220px-Symptom_potato_late_blight.jpgFilum : Heterokontophyta 12 September 2011

Kelas : Oomycetes

Ordo : Peronosporales

Famili : Pythiaceae

Genus : Phytophthora

Spesies : P. Ifestans

Phytophthora infestans merupakan oomycete yang menyebabkan penyakit serius yang dikenal sebagai kentang busuk daun atau hawar kentang. (Busuk Awal, Alternaria solani disebabkan oleh, juga sering disebut "kentang busuk"). Busuk daun adalah penyebab utama di Eropa tahun 1840, yang 1845 Irlandia dan kelaparan Highland 1846 kentang. Organisme ini juga dapat menginfeksi tomat dan beberapa anggota lain dari Solanaceae itu.
Biologi. Spora ini oomycete selama-musim dingin pada umbi-umbian yang terinfeksi, terutama mereka yang tersisa di tanah setelah panen tahun sebelumnya, di tumpukan pemilahan, tanah atau tanaman relawan yang terinfeksi dan menyebar dengan cepat di kondisi hangat dan basah. Hal ini dapat memiliki efek dahsyat dengan menghancurkan seluruh tanaman. Spora berkembang pada daun, menyebar melalui tanaman ketika suhu di atas 10 ° C (50 ° F) dan kelembaban lebih dari 75% -80% selama 2 hari atau lebih. Hujan bisa mencuci spora ke tanah di mana mereka menginfeksi umbi muda. Spora juga dapat melakukan perjalanan jarak panjang pada angin. Tahap awal kanker yang mudah terjawab, dan tidak semua tanaman dipengaruhi sekaligus. Gejala termasuk munculnya bercak-bercak gelap pada ujung daun dan batang tanaman.Cetakan putih akan muncul di bawah daun dalam kondisi lembab dan seluruh tanaman dapat dengan cepat runtuh. Umbi terinfeksi mengembangkan patch abu-abu atau gelap yang cokelat kemerahan di bawah kulit, dan cepat busuk ke bubur berbau busuk yang disebabkan oleh infestasi sekunder bakteri busuk lunak. Umbi tampak sehat dapat membusuk kemudian, ketika di toko.

Efek Phytophthora infestans di Irlandia pada 1845-1857 adalah salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan lebih dari satu juta mati kelaparan dan memaksa dua juta untuk beremigrasi dari negara-negara yang terkena dampak. Paling umum direferensikan adalah Kelaparan Besar Irlandia, selama 1840-an. Satu teori menunjukkan bahwa asal Phytophthora infestans dapat ditelusuri ke sebuah lembah di dataran tinggi Meksiko tengah.Teori ini telah ditantang oleh banyak penulis dan karya terbaru menunjukkan asal Andes untuk penyakit ini. Contoh pertama yang tercatat penyakit itu di Amerika Serikat, di Philadelphia dan New York City pada awal 1843. Angin lalu menyebarkan spora, dan pada 1845 ditemukan dari Illinois ke Nova Scotia, dan dari Virginia ke Ontario. Melintasi Samudra Atlantik dengan pengiriman bibit kentang bagi petani Belgia pada tahun 1845. Gunakan sebagai senjata biologis Perancis, Kanada, Amerika Serikat dan Uni Soviet diteliti P. infestans sebagai senjata biologi pada 1940-an dan 50-an. Hawar kentang adalah salah satu dari lebih dari 17 agen bahwa Amerika Serikat diteliti sebagai senjata biologis potensial sebelum bangsa ditangguhkan Program senjata biologis.

http://www.pestnet.org/Portals/32/Images/Disease/2850-Synchitrium%20psophocarp/2850a.jpg

Psophocarpi

Infeksi daun dan batang Psophocarpus tetragonolobus oleh Synchytrium psophocarpi hanya terjadi setelah inokulasi suspensi semprotan zoospore motil dan inkubasi selama minimal 12 jam dalam kantong polietilen atau ruang kabut. Masa inkubasi adalah 7 hari dan waktu generasi 22 hari pada suhu 31 o C maks, 24 o C min dan max RH 90%, min 70%. Young, 1-2 hari tua daun yang paling rentan; tidak ada infeksi pada 10 hari-tua dan kerentanan daun tidak meningkat oleh penghapusan lilin daun.

Infeksi tidak terjadi ketika tanaman ditanam dari biji dari terinfeksi, biji polong diinokulasi dengan zoospora atau sporangia dan benih ditaburkan di tanah yang mengandung sisa-sisa daun yang terinfeksi. Spora istirahat tidak ditemukan dalam jaringan yang terinfeksi selama 12 minggu disimpan atau di sisa-sisa tanaman. S. psophocarpi tidak menginfeksi Arachis hypogaea, Glycine max, Phaseolus aureus, P. coccineus, P. vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Psophocarpus scandens, Vicia faba, Vigna sesquipedalis dan V. unguiculata. S. minutum tidak menginfeksi kecipir.

Inokulasi menegaskan kerentanan garis kecipir UPS 62, 122 UPS, UPS 126 dan perlawanan dari dua baris kacang bersayap Thailand 1602 / 1 dan 1611 / 2.

Mikroskop

Mikroskop yang menggunakan cahaya lampu sebagai pengganti cahaya matahari sebagaimana yang digunakan pada mikroskop konvensional dan mikroskop ini mempunyai perbesaran maksimum yaitu 1.000 kali. Mikroskop cahaya juga punya dua sistem lensa, yaitu lensa objektif dan lensa okuler. Ada dua jenis mikroskop cahaya, yaitu mi

krosk

op monokuler dan binokuler. Huruf Nama Fungsi

A Lensa Okuler Untuk memperbesar benda yang dibentuk oleh lensa objektif.
B Lensa Objektif Untuk menentukan bayangan objektif serta memperbesar benda yang diamati. Umumnya ada tiga lensa objektif dengan pembesaran 4x,10x,dan 40x.
C tabung mikroskop Untuk mengatur fokus, dapat dinaikan dan diturunkan.
D Revolver Untuk memilih lensa objektif yang akan digunakan.
E Tombol Pengatur untuk memfokuskan bayangan objek secara lambat sehingga tabung mikroskop turun atau naik dengan lambat.fokus kasar dan tombol pengatur fokus halus
F Meja preparat Untuk meletakan objek (benda) yang akan diamati.
G Penjepit objek glass Untuk menjepit preparat di atas meja preparat agar preparat tidak bergeser.H Diafragma Berupa lubang-lubang berukuran kecil hingga selebar lubang pada meja objek. Berfungsi untuk mengatur banyak-sedikitnya cahaya yang akan masuk mikroskop.
I Reflektor/cermin untuk memantulkan dan mengarahkan cahaya ke dalam mikroskop. Ada dua jenis cermin, yaitu datar an cekung. Bila sumber cahaya lemah, digunakan crmin cekung, tetapi bila sumber cahaya kuat gunakan cermin datar.
J Kaki mikroskop Untuk menjaga mikroskop agar dapat berdiri dengan mantap dia atas meja.
K Lengan mikroskop Untuk pegangan saat membawa mikroskop

Cara Menggunakan Mikroskop
1. Pertama- tama adalah Letakkan mikroskop terlebih dahulu di atas meja dengan cara memegang lengan mikroskop sedemikian rupa sehingga mikroskop berada tepat di hadapan pemakai.

2.Putar revolver sehingga lensa objektif dengan perbesaran lemah berada pada posisi satu poros dengan lensa okuler yang ditandai bunyi “klik” pada revolver.

3.Mengatur cermin dan diafragma untuk melihat kekuatan cahaya masuk, hingga dari lensa okuler tampak terang berbentuk bulat.

Aturlah focus untuk memperjelas gambar objek dengan cara memutar pemutar
kasar, sambil dilihat dari lensa okuler. Untuk mempertajam citra/gambar, putarlah pemutar halus. Apabila bayangan objek sudah ditemukan maka untuk memperbesarnya, gantilah lensa objektif dengan ukuran dari 10X, 40X, atau 100X, dengan cara memutar revolver hingga bunyi “Wife”

Sumber : http://klikbelajar.com/pelajaran-sekolah/pelajaran-biologi/mikroskop/ by dwi

Saccharomyces cerevciae: berfungsi untuk pembuatan roti, tape, dan alcohol

Sumber:
http://id.shvoong.com/writing-and-speaking/2150298-definisi-ragi-khamir-protozoa-dan/#ixzz1YW5pZIpx

Ragi atau khamir adalah jamur yang terdiri dari satu sel, dan tidak membentuk hifa. Termasuk golongan jamur Ascomycotina. Reproduksi dengan membentuk tunas (budding)
Contoh dan peranan Ragi/Khamir
1. Saccharomyces cerevciae: berfungsi untuk pembuatan roti, tape, dan alcohol
2. Saccharomyces tuac: berfungsi untuk mengubah air niral legen menjadi tuac.
3. Saccharomyces ellipsoideus: berfungsi untuk peragian buah anggur menjadi anggur minuman.
Protozoa
Protozoa berasal dari kata protos artinya pertama, dan zoon berarti hewan. Protozoa merupakan hewan bersel satu dan sebagai golongan hewan yang tidak bertulang belakang (invertebrate)
1. Sifat-sifat Protozoa
- Merupakan hewan bersel satu (uniselluler) memiliki ukuran 3 - 1000µ, tidak mempunyai dinding sel yang kuat, sehingga bentuk tubuhnya tidak tetap.
- Di dalam sel terdapat nucleus (inti sel), nukleokus (anak inti), vakuola dan mitokondria.
- Cara hidupnya sebagai parasit atau saprofit (heterotrof)
- Reproduksi:
o Vegetative (asexual) dengan membelah diri
o Generatif (sexual) dengan konjugasi bila lingkungan tidak baik, misalnya kurang air, protozoa akan membungkus diri dengan kista.
2. Klasifikasi Protozoa
Protozoa dibedakan menjadi 4 kelas yaitu : rhizopoda (sarcodina), Flagellata (Mastighopora), Ciliata dan Sphorozoa
a. Rhizopoda atau Sarcodina:
- Memiliki struktur tubuh yang terdiri protoplasma yang dibatasi oleh membrane. Hewan ini memiliki cirri khusus alat geraknya berupa kaki semu/kaki palsu (pseudopodia). Habitat Rhizopoda. Air tawar, air laut, dan parasit di dalam tubuh hewan atau manusia.
- Cara berkembang biaknya dengan membelah diri.
- Contoh rhizophoda:
1) Ectoamoeba, Amoeba yang hidup diluar tubuh manusia, misalnya Amoeba proteus yang hidup di tempat-tempat basah dan perairan tawar yang kaya zat organic.
2) Entamoeba, Amoeba yang hidup di dalam tubuh manusia dan bersifat pathogen atau menyebabkan penyakit.
Misalnya:
- Entamoeba dysentriae, Entamoeba histolitica, parasit dalam tubuh usus manusia penyebab penyakit disentri amoeba.
- Entamoeba coli, hidup dalam usus tebal manusia dan hewan, membusukkan sisa-sisa makanan dan membantu pembentukan vitamin K.
- Entamoeba gigivalis, hidup di dalam rongga mulut dan menguraikan sisa-sisa makanan, sehingga merusak gigi dan gusi.
3) Arcella, banyak terdapat di air tawar, kerangka luar terdiri dari kitin.
4) Difflugia, hidup di air tawar, kerangka luar mengandung pasir.
5) Foraminifera, hidup di air laut, kerangka luar dari kapur, fosil-fosil foraminifera berguna sebagai petunjuk dalam pencarian minyak bumi.
Contoh: - globigerina ooze
- globigerina bulloider
6) Radiolaria, hidup di laut, kerangka terbuat dari kersik, kerangka radiolaria berperan sebagai alat penggosok.
b. Flagellata (mastighopora)
o Hewan ini memiliki alat gerak berupa bulu cambuk (flagel: mastig) hidup di air laut, air tawar, dan parasit dalam tubuh manusia maupun hewan. Berkembangbiak dengan membelah diri. Sebagian hewan flagellate juga diketemuakan mempunyai klorofil.
o Contoh flagellate:
1. Eugelena viridis, memiliki khlorofil dan titik mata (stigma) hidup di perairan tercemar dan mengandung bahan organic.
2. Volvox globator, hidup di air tawar, mempunyai khlorofil.
3. Noctiluca miliaris, hidup di laut, dapat mengeluarkan cahaya, menyebabkan laut Nampak bercahaya pada malam hari.
4. Trypanosoma gambiense, penyebab penyakit tidur pada manusia vector (hospest) perantara lalat tse-tse (gloosina palpalis).
5. Trypanosoma cruzi, penyebab anemia, hidup dalam darah manusia.
c. Cilliata (Cilliophora)
o Hewan ini memiliki alat gerak berupa bulu getar (cilia). Habitat di air tawar atau tempat lembab. Mempunyai dua buah inti yaitu inti besar (makronukleus) dan inti kecl (mikro nucleus). Reproduksi secara membelah diri (asexual) dan konjugsi (sexual).
o Contoh :
- Paramaecium caudatum, bentuk seperti sandal, hidup di air tawar yang banyak mengandung zat organic.
- Stentor, bentuk seperti terompet, banyak ditemukan di perairan tercemar.
- Balantidium coli, hidup di usus manusia, sebagai parasit atau penyebab balantidiosis.
- Didinium, sebagai predator Paramaecium di ekosistem perairan air tawar.
- Vorticela, bentuk seperti lonceng di ketemukan di perairan tercemar.
d. Sporozoa
o Sporozoa tidak memiliki alat gerak, hidup sebagai parasit baik pada darah manusia maupun hewan tubuhnya terdiri dari satu sel. Berkembang biak dengan membelah diri berlangsung dalam tubuh manusia/penderita dan dengan persatuan gamet jantan betina (sexual) dalam tubuh nyamuk (vector).
o Contoh hewan sporozoa:
1. Plasmodium falciparum, penyebab penyakit malaria tropika, masa sporulasi (penderita mengalami demam) 1 – 2 x 24 jam.
2. Plasmodium vivax, penyebab penyakit malaria tertian, masa sporulasi 2 x 24 jam.
3. Plasmodium malariae, penyebab penyakit malaria quartana, masa sporulasi 3 x 24 jam.
Parasit
o Parasit merupakan hubungan antar organisme yang berbeda spesies, bila salah satu organisme hidup dan mengambil makanannya dari organisme yang ditumpanginya atau merugikan inangnya.
o Parasit dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu:
§ Ectoparasit, jika parasit hidup menempel pada inangnya dan mengambil zat-zat makanan dari luar tubuh inangnya. Contoh benalu pada tumbuhan;
§ Kutu rambut pada manusia, Gyrodactylus sp. Dan lemea sp. Pada ikan.
o Endoparasit, jika parasit hidup di dalam tubuh inangnya dan mengambil zat-zat makanan dari dalam tubuh inangnya.
Contoh : cacing pita pada daging sapi, Plasmodium pada darah manusia.

Bab 2

Nutrient Agar
Nutrien agar adalah medium umum untuk uji air dan produk dairy. NA juga digunakan untuk pertumbuhan mayoritas dari mikroorganisme yang tidak selektif, dalam artian mikroorganisme heterotrof. Media ini merupakan media sederhana yang dibuat dari ekstrak beef, pepton, dan agar. Na merupakan salah satu media yang umum digunakan dalam prosedur bakteriologi seperti uji biasa dari air, sewage, produk pangan, untuk membawa stok kultur, untuk pertumbuhan sampel pada uji bakteri, dan untuk mengisolasi organisme dalam kultur murni.
Untuk komposisi nutrien adar adalah eksrak beef 10 g, pepton 10 g, NaCl 5 g, air desitilat 1.000 ml dan 15 g agar/L. Agar dilarutkan dengan komposisi lain dan disterilisasi dengan autoklaf pada 121°C selama 15 menit. Kemudian siapkan wadah sesuai yang dibutuhkan.

Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA)
PDA digunakan untuk menumbuhkan atau mengidentifikasi yeast dan kapang. Dapat juga digunakan untuk enumerasi yeast dan kapang dalam suatu sampel atau produk makanan. PDA mengandung sumber karbohidrat dalam jumlah cukup yaitu terdiri dari 20% ekstrak kentang dan 2% glukosa sehingga baik untuk pertumbuhan kapang dan khamir tetapi kurang baik untuk pertumbuhan bakteri. Cara membuat PDA adalah mensuspensikan 39 g media dalam 1 liter air yang telah didestilasi. campur dan panaskan serta aduk. Didihkan selama 1 menit untuk melarutkan media secara sempurna. Sterilisasi pada suhu 121°C selama 15 menit. Dinginkan hingga suhu 40-45°C dan tuang dalam cawan petri dengan pH akhir 5,6+0,2.

http://dunia-mikro.blogspot.com/2008/08/media-pertumbuhan-mikroorganisme.html by rully

TPA

Sebuah media dasar yang digunakan untuk jenis kultur mikroorganisme banyak. Agar-agar kedelai Tryptic terutama digunakan sebagai media pertumbuhan awal untuk tujuan: penyimpanan mengamati morfologi koloni, mengembangkan kultur murni, mencapai pertumbuhan yang cukup untuk pengujian biokimia lebih lanjut, dan budaya.

Saturday

Bartholomew Kuma 'One Piece'

Bartholomew Kuma (バーソロミュー・くま, Bāsoromyū Kuma) is a Shichibukai and former revolutionary with a bounty of Bsymbol.gif296,000,000. He was once feared as an extremely vicious pirate, earning himself the title "Tyrant". He is a type of cyborgcalled "Pacifista" (パシフィスタ, Pashifisuta) developed by Dr.Vegapunk. Once Vegapunk finished his modifications on Kuma, the Shichibukai was converted into the first complete Pacifista cyborg with the serial PX-0, figuratively dying in the process. He was a very influential character during the Whitebeard War Saga, setting the stage for Luffy's appearance in Amazon Lily, Impel Down, and Marineford. He has saved and defeated the Straw Hat Pirates on two occasions, and protected the Thousand Sunnyduring their two-year absence by making a deal with Vegapunk to have that mission programmed as his primary objective.

Appearance

Kuma is an enormous man, nearing 7 meters tall, he is the tallest remaining Shichibukai (being one inch shorter than former member Moriah) and is usually seen carrying a Bible. His overall appearance resembles that of a bear, though there are a few key differences. His eyes are strangely covered by either a pair of glasses or clear-mirrored lenses. While initially he will give the impression of wearing glasses, it seems that,based on thePacifistas that were destroyed, those are actually his own eyes.

His hat features a pair of rounded ears, and, along with the fabric of his pants, is covered in brown spots. His jacket contains a large white design reminiscent of a target crosshair or a coda sign. There are also several paw prints lining the bottom hem of his coat. He also has a long protruding chin. He bears the tattoo "PX-0" on the left side of the base of his throat.

In the anime, Kuma's hair and jacket are black, and his hat is gray. The covering of his Bible is also shown to be intricately colored purple. In the manga,Oda originally intended for Kuma to have a completely different color scheme. Kuma's hair was shown to be brown, his jacket bright orange, his hat yellow with green spots, and his Bible a solid gold color. Later in the manga chapters, his coat was changed to more closely resemble the one in the anime, though the rest of his design remained

Personality

Despite his imposing figure and his past reputation, Bartholomew Kuma is a very calm and quiet person. In addition to his demeanor, he can also be seen as somewhat of a benevolent character, especially compared to the other Shichibukai. This assumption can be reached through some of his actions, specifically when he spared the lives of the Straw Hats on two separate occasions.

When talking, Kuma customarily uses the word target in his sentences. He also tends to ask a person where they would like to go on a trip before he sends them away with his Devil Fruit's power, often honoring the recipient's request, but will occassionally send them to a place of his own choosing regardless of whether or not he received a reply.

Although he obeys the commands of the World Government, Kuma disagrees with what his superiors deem "good" and "bad" in the world. Instead, Kuma strives to uphold his own ideals (described as Moral Justice) whenever possible. He even goes so far as to imply that Blackbeard's acceptance into the Shichibukai ranks had been a poor decision by the government, despite the fact that it filled the position left by Crocodile's defeat.

However, Kuma's loyalty does not extend to the Marines. This can be seen when he refuses to answer a direct question from Admiral Kizaru during the Sabaody Archipelago Arc. Due to his unwillingness to aid the Marines without a direct order, Kuma didn't hesitate to lie when it came to his victory over the Straw Hats at Sabaody Archipelago.

Kuma delivers his message to Rayleigh

There are still several mysteries behind Kuma's character. The details behind his transformation into a "Pacifista" and what exactly it entails are still unknown. He also whispered a message to Silvers Rayleigh during the battle at the Sabaody Archipelago, which the old pirate believes puts the other man at risk. It was revealed much later.

I work for the Revolutionary Army. Since we have a connection, I want to help this group (the Straw Hat Pirates) escape.
— Kuma's message to Rayleigh.

Years ago, when Kuma was used in the Pacifista project, Pacifista modifications on him were made at different stages and at different times, with his head being the last part of his body to be modified. However, at present, the modifications have been completed. Because of this, Kuma apparently lost all form of free will, personality and memory since then. Essentially, the "Tyrant Kuma", as Doflamingo puts it, is now "dead". It seems that Kuma knowingly forsook his humanity so that he would comply with the Government he once hated.

We will not be seeing one another again...Farewell.
— Kuma's last words to Luffy before losing his free will to the Pacifista project's finalization.


After the timeskip, Sentomaru said that Kuma has been acting strange ever since he lost his free-will. It turns out that prior to the modifications that completely converted him, he and Doctor Vegapunk made a deal to have his final form protect the Thousand Sunny until one of the Strawhat Pirates arrived.

Abilities and Powers

Kuma is one of the few people to have completely defeated the entire Straw Hat Pirates, and is also the only character introduced so far that has defeated the crew single-handedly, twice. However, the crew was extremely weak both times and they were in no shape to fight another battle, much less a Shichibukai (though Kuma's victory was downplayed, as at the first encounter, the crew had just finished battling another Shichibukai, Gekko Moriah, as well as an island full of zombies, and Oars; in the second encounter, they had just battled against two Pacifistas). He doesn't want the crew dead however since he allowed them to escape.

Devil Fruit

If you were to go on a trip...where would you like to go?
— Kuma before using his Devil Fruit powers.
Kuma reveals his Devil Fruit's ability.

Kuma ate the Nikyu Nikyu no Mi, making him a "Paw Man". ThisParamecia-class Devil Fruit gives him paw pads which give him the power to "push" anything, including the air around him , allowing him to not only defend himself from attacks but also to push objects at great speed.

The fruit's powers also allow him to move at the same speed as the objects he pushes, possibly by using it to push himself, appearing instantaneously at a desired location regardless of distance, all the while he moves with no more than a slow walk.

Kuma has made numerous people "vanish" by slapping them with one of this hands. It is later revealed that he pushes them away, sending them flying to another destination, which he can choose, even if the destination requires several days to reach.

Kuma has also shown the ability to "push" or deflect things that lack palpability such as people's pain and exhaustion. This is shown when Kuma took all of the pain that Luffy had suffered on Thriller Bark and left him feeling completely healthy, meaning that his abilities can be used to heal people and cure them. However, in this case, Kuma removed Luffy's pain because Zoro had agreed to accept it in his place. It is not clear what would happen if the pain, which took the form of a giant bubble, had not been transferred to Zoro. It would seem that Kuma's ability does not give him the power to heal damage as much as simply extract it and let it go somewhere else.

Kuma fights in a style reminiscent of sumo-wrestling. He crouches low in a wide stance, even using the signature stomp, and attacks with open-palm strikes, using his special paws to launch powerful air bullets. Much in keeping with the sumo inspiration, Kuma spends almost all of his time with his feet planted, refusing to give his ground. He has also demonstrated the ability to block all physical attacks, even sword attacks, by pushing them away with these hands.

Kuma's abilities can also be used to create massively destructive attacks. This is displayed by one of his signature moves, "Ursus Shock", essentially a "bomb" made of highly compressed air created by pushing the air between his hands. This destructive power is enough to turn an entire island to dust or severely cripple the massive giant, Oars Jr.

Pacifista Modifications

Kuma is a cyborg modified by Vegapunk, he is however, very different from other cyborgs, and displays strength and agility that are on a different scale. He is extremely fast, enough to seem as though he has disappeared in the eyes of the Straw Hats, as well everyone on Thriller Bark. This is, however, unclear if it has something to do with the modifications from Dr. Vegapunk, or if it is part of his Devil Fruit powers, or simply being his raw speed.

His body is able to withstand most attacks, including Sanji's kicks and even the attack of Zoro, which was able to cut through steel. Zoro could only leave a scratch on Kuma with a surprise attack. Even after two years of accumulated damage, lack of repair, and lack of sustenance intake, Kuma was still operational. While the modifications gave Kuma great strength, their full completion over a long time period apparently robbed Kuma of his free will.

As a Pacifista, Kuma has the ability to shoot laser beams, which not only causes massive explosions upon detonation, but can also melt steel. This laser is apparently a replication of Kizaru's Pika Pika no Mi powers and for Kuma, this launcher is only installed in his mouth. In the other Pacifista, the launcher is installed on their palms as well. Kuma has his paw pads instead of the laser holes on his hands; it is this aspect, along with the bible that only he holds, even after losing his free will, that distinguish him from the other Pacifista, and makes him superior to them.

Geography

Through his actions he appears to have a great knowledge in geography, as with his powers he knows exactly where he is sending someone seemingly no matter where in the world he is. His knowledge degree is wide enough to perfectly locate even a moving sky island, although his cyborg modifications may have enhanced this ability. This also shown when he asks people where they would like to go before he 'pushes' them.

History

Past History

According to Perona, Kuma was once a violent, tyrannical pirate, who was said to be "brutal beyond measure". Because of this, he was known as "Tyrant" Kuma. Whether this was true or not remains to be seen.

Revolutionary Army

Twelve years before the current storyline, he was on a crew with Monkey D. Dragon and Emporio Ivankov. He witnessed the immolation of Gray Terminal, assisting the survivors on board the revolutionaries' ship. While this crew was a precursor to the Revolutionaries, it is unknown if Kuma remained with Dragon after he began his assault against the World Government. In this time, though, he learned of Dragon's son, Monkey D. Luffy; considering that not even Ivankov knew of Luffy and Dragon's relationship, this means that Kuma was either incredibly close to Dragon, or that he had been informed of their relationship by Sengoku, Garp or Akainu after he became a Shichibukai, since they were the only ones in the Marines to know that Dragon is Luffy's father.

Shichibukai and the Pacifista Project

He later became a Shichibukai and allowed Dr. Vegapunk to modify him into the cyborg weapon "Pacifista". He apparently struck some sort of deal with the World Government to become a guinea pig for this human weapon project, despite his hatred towards them, but as of yet there has been no further details revealed regarding this clandestine agreement, the processes involved in the creation of Pacifista, or the relationship between Kuma and the mysterious Vegapunk. His modification into a cyborg was a slow process, with each of his body parts being modified one by one, with his head being preserved for the last.

Skypiea Saga

Meeting at Mariejois

Like Donquixote Doflamingo and later on Dracule Mihawk, he was present at the government summit at Mariejois, following Crocodile's defeat in Alabasta. He only spoke briefly.

Whitebeard War Saga

Dealing with Moriah's Defeat at Thriller Bark

With orders from the World Government to inform Gekko Moriah ofCrocodile's replacement, Kuma came to Thriller Bark. Arriving there, he asked some of Perona's zombie minions, who were loading treasure onto theThousand Sunny, where their master would be. However, he was met with some resistance and was forced to deal with them. His actions weren't unnoticed as the zombies reported his doings to the person they were to ordered to follow, Perona. Perona recognized Kuma and shook in fear at his sight.

Despite Kuma's reputation, however, Perona got annoyed with him and attempted to fight the Shichibukai for his shadow. However, asking her where she would like to go and removing a glove, he made her vanish by sending her flying to Kuraigana Island.

The zombies seeing this tried to attack him but were frightened off by his mere presence. Kuma then spottedNami and asked her if Luffy has an older brother. After receiving her answer, he then somehow teleported away and continued his search for Moriah.

Kuma and Moriah meet.

Kuma then found Moriah in the dance hall in the Mast Mansion of Thriller Bark. After some formalities, he told Moriah of Crocodile's replacement, Marshall D. Teach. Though the gap in the Shichibukai ranks had been filled up, he told Moriah that he felt somewhat uneasy of the situation.

Kuma then told Moriah that since the Straw Hats were most likely to head toward Moriah's vicinity, he should do something about them. He explained this to Moriah since the World Government had grown greatly alert of the pirates since the events at Enies Lobby. Though he wasn't given a specific order, he offered to help Moriah in dealing with the Straw Hats. Moriah however angrily declined Kuma's help and told him to instead sit back and watch as he himself defeated the Straw Hats. However, despite Moriah's boasting, Kuma witnessed Moriah get beaten by Luffy. After the battle, Kuma then reported this to the World Government.

Fearful that the rumors of Moriah's defeat will cause another global uproar like with Crocodile, they ordered Kuma to kill all witnesses on Thriller Bark including the Straw Hat Pirates. Accepting the order, he launched an attack on some of the members of the Thriller Bark Victim's Association before shifting his attention to Zoro. Kuma weakened Zoro and used his Devil Fruit ability to take down Franky and Sanji. He gives them an ultimatum: let him kill Luffy, and he will let them live. When they refuse his offer, Kuma calmly uses his powers to create the effects of a bomb, engulfing a portion of the island (in the anime, the entire island was affected). Though this does not succeed in killing the Straw Hats, it knocks all of them out.

Zoro desperately slashing Kuma.

Just when he is about to finish an unconscious Luffy off, Zoro, in a desperate move, strikes him with a Shishi Sonson (Lion's song) in an effort to kill him by cutting him in two. However, he is only able to damage him. The wound on Kuma's shoulder reveals that he is a Cyborg like Franky, but he is different from Franky. Kuma is an incomplete human weapon created by the World Government and Dr. Vegapunk, known as a Pacifista. Zoro offers to trade his life for Luffy's. Kuma agrees.

At that moment, Sanji decides to give his life up. Zoro promptly knocks him out, feeling it necessary to sacrifice his own life rather than Sanji's. Kuma states that he would not harm Luffy, as his "honor would be at stake", In exchange for Zoro experiencing the pain Luffy endured throughout his fight against Moriah, Kuma would leave. Kuma proceeds to literally extract Luffy's pain, and directs it at Zoro, which almost kills him. Kuma then teleports to the entrance to the ship. He is last seen musing about Dragon having a good son with a loyal crew.

Later, he is seen in the company of Garp and Sengoku, being scolded by the latter for his inability to capture the Straw Hats.

Separating the Straw Hats at Sabaody Archipelago

Having exhausted themselves by defeating a Pacifista on the Sabaody Archipelago, the Straw Hats were immediately confronted by Kizaru and Sentomaru, as well as another Pacifista, PX-1. However, the battle was interrupted by the real Bartholomew Kuma, who Zoro recognized as the genuine article. He was surprised to find Zoro still alive, who replied that it was due to Kuma's mercy. Seemingly impressed, Kuma made Zoro vanish to the same place that he sent Perona using the same move that he used on her at Thriller Bark.

He then performed the same move on the rest of the Straw Hats, sending them to separate islands all across the Grand Line. Kuma also sent away the Pacifista that was charging in for an attack against Usopp, making it vanish as well. While he sent the Straw Hats flying away from the archipelago, he whispers something into Rayleigh's ear. This is later revealed to be the fact that, as a member of the Revolutionary Army, he wished to save Luffy and his crew. The Dark King questions Kuma's motives, who responds by saying that he can choose whether to believe him or not. After sending all of the crew flying, he leaves a broken Luffy for last, sending him to Amazon Lily.

Before returning to Marineford, he visits Rayleigh to tell him something and adding that he didn't have much time left. This was the last-known action, made freely by Kuma, before Dr. Vegapunk completed the Pacifista modifications.

Battle at Marineford

Kuma answered to the call for the Shichibukai to battle Whitebeard and was later shown dining with the other Shichibukai, except for Jinbe and Boa Hancock. He then appeared at Marineford alongside Dracule Mihawk, Donquixote Doflamingo,Gekko Moriah, and Boa Hancock, ready for the battle ahead.

When Little Oars Jr. arrived and began leaving destruction in his wake, Kuma hit him with an Ursus Shock, wounding Little Oars Jr. badly. Kuma took on a solemn appearance after seeing Luffy on the battlefield. During the battle, he fired a laser at Ivankov for which the okama questioned why. When Sengoku reveals that Dragon is Luffy's father, he is the only one of the Shichibukai not to voice his thoughts.

Kuma and Ivankov face off.

Ivankov is then seen fighting him personally, though Doflamingo says it is no use talking to Kuma, cryptically saying that the Kuma Ivankov knew is already dead. Doflamingo then reveals information about Kuma's modifications and what made Kuma into what he is now, making it clear why Kuma went to Sabaody in the first place. Ivankov, outraged at such a revelation, decides he won't hold back any longer, having launched several attacks at Kuma right before saying this.

Kuma later went to the plaza with the other Shichibukai when Sengoku begins the final stages of his plan. After the arrival of Shanks, Kuma is seen standing down along with everyone else.

After the War

Kuma appears again at the Sabaody Archipelago in front of theRosy Life Riders, holding his trademark bible. Shakky isn't afraid of him believing him to be an ally, unaware that he lost his free will and became a weapon for the World Government. However, Kuma did not attack but joined them into protecting the Thousand Sunny instead.

One year after the separation of the Straw Hat crew, the Marines tried to destroy the ship but Kuma, as well as Hatchan and Duval, fought against them. Kuma continued protecting the Thousand Sunny after Duval and Hatchan retired after receiving too many injuries from that battle.

His reason to do so remains unclear; nevertheless, Franky stated that Kuma had Vegapunk input a special mission into his body before losing his personality, to protect the ship even if it means the cost of his life until a Straw Hat returns.

New World Saga

Two Years Later


Franky finds Kuma after the latter protected Thousand Sunny for 2 years.

When Franky went to see Thousand Sunny, he found Kuma heavily damaged near the ship. After Kuma saw Franky, he slowly walked away saying "Mission complete."

After the Straw Hats meet again and escaped the Sabaody Archipelago, Franky told the group that they owe a debt to Kuma for saving them from Admiral Kizaru, for sending them to different islands where they can grow stronger, and for protecting the Thousand Sunny. Franky adds that if they ever encounter him again someday, he will already have become a heartless "human weapon".

Relationships

Revolutionaries

Prior to receiving his final modifications, Kuma told Rayleigh that he was a member of the Revolutionary Army. This is supported by his past membership of the organization and acquaintance with Dragon and Ivankov. He also had knowledge of Luffy's relationship with Dragon (something that even Ivankov was unaware of) and he subsequently spared the Straw Hats' lives on two occasions, as well as guarding their ship for 2 years from the likes of pirates and Marines due to their common connection.

It was stated by Ivankov that he and Kuma knew each other, and that he is no longer the man he once was.The relationship is confirmed in the flashback when Dragon saves the people from the fire in the Gray Terminal where Kuma is seen with Ivankov and the crew on Dragon's ship.

Straw Hat Pirates

Kuma was ordered to kill the Straw Hat Pirates after Moriah's defeat at their hands. However, he spared their lives once at Thriller Bark, and then again on Sabaody Archipelago, where he helped them escape Kizaru andSentomaru, his last known act under his own free will.
While Kuma helped the entire Straw Hat crew, he has shown a certain respect for Zoro, specifically after he finds the swordsman alive following the events at Thriller Bark. Zoro, too, recognizes and respects Kuma’s strength, admitting that he is only alive because of the other’s mercy.

Kuma also knows a lot about Luffy, as he at least knew that Portgas D. Ace and Monkey D. Dragon are his adoptive brother and biological father, respectively. Both relationships were not public matters, and as such, very few people actually know about them, until Sengoku made it public during the war. He gave Luffy one final farewell before sending him to Amazon Lily and losing his free will to the Pacifista project's finalization.

Kuma's intentions during the incident with the World Nobles on Sabaody Archipelago was to save the Straw Hat crew. He also made a deal with Dr. Vegapunk to program him to protect the Thousand Sunny until a Straw Hat member returns. Franky told the other Straw Hats that they owe a debt to Kuma.

Shichibukai

Kuma has only been shown interacting with one of the Shichibukai, Gekko Moriah. Moriah feels that because of his loyalty to the World Government, he can't be trusted.

Kuma knows the current islands of Hancock, Mihawk and Moriah, as he has visited Thriller Bark and sent people to Amazon Lily and Kuraigana Island with his powers. It's unknown if he's been to these locations besides Thriller Bark.

Enemies

World Government

Kuma is currently a completely modified Pacifista who follows the government's orders without question. Moriahstated that because of Kuma's allegiance, Kuma worried him more than any other Shichibukai. It is worth noting however that Kuma was originally a revolutionary who hated the government. He also claimed to Silvers Rayleighthat he is still a revolutionary prior to his final Pacifista modifications. The reason for his pretense as a loyal tool of the World Government has not been revealed yet, nor has the reason why he agreed to have his personality and memories removed or why he had even agreed to be a part of the Pacifista project in the first place.

Marines

We (Shichibukai) have no obligation to cooperate with the Marines save where the government is directly involved... Your question shall remain unanswered.
— Kuma's response to Kizaru's demands.

Prior to his final modifications, Kuma publicly claimed to follow the World Government. However, he refused to co-operate with the Marines unless given express orders by the World Government to do so. Currently, due to hisPacifista upgrades, he has seemingly become a slave to both the World Government and Marines alike, doing whatever he is commanded

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