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Monday

Spirit from Inside

The English word spirit (from Latin spiritus "breath") has many differing meanings and connotations, most of them relating to a non-corporeal substancecontrasted with the material body. The spirit of a living thing usually refers to or explains its consciousness. The notions of a person's "spirit" and "soul" often also overlap, as both contrast with body and both are understood as surviving the bodily death in religion and occultism, and "spirit" can also have the sense of "ghost", i.e. a manifestation of the spirit of a deceased person.

The term may also refer to any incorporeal or immaterial being, such as demons or deities, in Christianity specifically the Holy Spirit experienced by the disciples at Pentecost.


Etymology

The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning "breath", but also "spirit, soul, courage, vigor", ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European *(s)peis. It is distinguished from Latin anima, "soul." In Greek, this distinction exists between pneuma (πνευμα), "breath, motile air, spirit," and psykhē (ψυχη), "soul."

The word "spirit" came into Middle English via Old French. The distinction between soul and spirit also developed in the Abrahamic religions: Arabic nafs (نفس) opposite rúħ (روح); Hebrew neshama(נְשָׁמָה nəšâmâh) or nephesh (in Hebrew neshama comes from the root NŠM or "breath") opposite ruach (רוּחַ rûaħ).


Metaphysical and metaphorical uses

English-speakers use the word "spirit" in two related contexts, one metaphysical and the other metaphorical.

Metaphysical contexts

In metaphysical terms, "spirit" has acquired a number of meanings:

  • An incorporeal but ubiquitous, non-quantifiable substance or energy present individually in all living things. Unlike the concept of souls (often regarded as eternal and sometimes believed to pre-exist the body) a spirit develops and grows as an integral aspect of a living being.[citation needed] This concept of the individual spirit occurs commonly in animism. Note the distinction between this concept of spirit and that of the pre-existing or eternal soul: belief in souls occurs specifically and far less commonly, particularly in traditional societies. One might more properly term this type/aspect of spirit "life" (bios in Greek) or "aether" rather than "spirit" (pneuma in Greek).
  • A daemon sprite, or especially a ghost. People usually conceive of a ghost as a wandering spirit from a being no longer living, having survived the death of the body yet maintaining at least vestiges of mind and of consciousness.
  • In religion and spirituality, the respiration of a human has for obvious reasons become seen as strongly linked with the very occurrence of life. A similar significance has become attached to humanblood. Spirit, in this sense, means the thing that separates a living body from a corpse—and usually implies intelligence, consciousness, and sentience.
  • Latter-day Saint prophet Joseph Smith Jr. taught that the concept of spirit as incorporeal or without substance was incorrect: "There is no such thing as immaterial matter. All spirit is matter, but it is more fine or pure, and can only be discerned by purer eyes."
  • In some Native American spiritual traditions, the Spirit, or 'Great Spirit', is a term for the Creator.
  • Various forms of animism, such as Japan's Shinto and African traditional religion, focus on invisible beings that represent or connect with plants, animals (sometimes called "Animal Fathers)", orlandforms (kami): translators usually employ the English word "spirit" when trying to express the idea of such entities.
  • Individual spirits envisaged as interconnected with all other spirits and with "The Spirit" (singular and capitalized). This concept relates to theories of a unified spirituality, to universal consciousnessand to some concepts of Deity. In this scenario all separate "spirits", when connected, form a greater unity, the Spirit, which has an identity separate from its elements plus a consciousness andintellect greater than its elements; an ultimate, unified, non-dual awareness or force of life combining or transcending all individual units of consciousness. The experience of such a connection can become a primary basis for spiritual belief. The term spirit occurs in this sense in (to name but a few) Anthroposophy, Aurobindo, A Course In Miracles, Hegel, Ken Wilber, and Meher Baba (though in his teachings, "spirits" are only apparently separate from each other and from "The Spirit.") In this use, the term seems conceptually identical to Plotinus's "The One" and Friedrich Schelling's"Absolute". Similarly, according to the panentheistic/pantheistic view, Spirit equates to essence that can manifest itself as mind/soul through any level in pantheistic hierarchy/holarchy, such as through a mind/soul of a single cell (with very primitive, elemental consciousness), or through a human or animal mind/soul (with consciousness on a level of organic synergy of an individual human/animal), or through a (superior) mind/soul with synergetically extremely complex/sophisticated consciousness of whole galaxies involving all sub-levels, all emanating (since the superior mind/soul operates non-dimensionally, or trans-dimensionally) from the one Spirit.
  • Christian theology can use the term "Spirit" to describe God, or aspects of God — as in the "Holy Spirit", referring to a Triune God (Trinity)(cf Gospel of Matthew 28:19).
  • "Spirit" forms a central concept in pneumatology (note that pneumatology studies "pneuma" (Greek for "spirit") not "psyche" (Greek for "soul") — as studied in psychology).
  • Christian Science uses "Spirit" as one of the seven synonyms for God, as in: "Principle; Mind; Soul; Spirit; Life; Truth; Love"
  • Harmonism reserves the term "spirit" for those that collectively control and influence an individual from the realm of the mind.

Metaphorical usage

The metaphorical use of the term likewise groups several related meanings:

  • The loyalty and feeling of inclusion in the social history or collective essence of an institution or group, such as in school spirit or esprit de corps.
  • A closely related meaning refers to the worldview of a person, place, or time, as in "The Declaration of Independence was written in the spirit of John Locke and his notions of liberty", or the termzeitgeist, meaning "spirit of the age".
  • As a synonym for "vivacity" as in "She performed the piece with spirit" or "She put up a spirited defense".
  • The underlying intention of a text as distinguished from its literal meaning, especially in law; see Letter and spirit of the law
  • As a term for alcoholic beverages.
  • In mysticism: existence in unity with Godhead. Soul may also equate with spirit, but the soul involves certain individual human consciousness, while spirit comes from beyond that. Compare the psychological teaching of Al-Ghazali.

See soul and ghost and spiritual for related discussions.


Related concepts in other languages

Similar concepts in other languages include Greek pneuma and Sanskrit akasha/atman, see also Prana.

Some languages use a word for "spirit" often closely related (if not synonymous) to "mind". Examples include the German, Geist (related to the English word "ghost") or the French, 'l'esprit'. English versions of the Judaeo-Christian Bible most commonly translate the Hebrew word "ruach" (רוח; "wind") as "the spirit", whose essence is divine . Alternatively, Hebrew texts commonly use the word nephesh. Kabbalists regard nephesh as one of the five parts of the Jewish soul, where nephesh (animal) refers to the physical being and its animal instincts. Similarly, Scandinavian languages, Baltic languages, Slavic languages and the Chinese language (qi) use the words for "breath" to express concepts similar to "the spirit".

Tuesday

I'm Genius

Genius (plural geniuses) is something or someone embodying exceptional intellectual ability, creativity, or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of unprecedented insight.

There is no scientifically precise definition of genius, and indeed the question of whether the notion itself has any real meaning has long been a subject of debate. The term is used in various ways: to refer to a particular aspect of an individual, or the individual in their entirety; to a scholar in many subjects (e.g. Isaac Newton or Leonardo da Vinci) or a scholar in a single subject (e.g. Albert Einstein or Stephen Hawking). Research into what causes genius and mastery is still in its early stages, but psychology already offers relevant insights.

Historical development

Galton

The assessing of intelligence was initiated by Francis Galton and James McKeen Cattell. They had advocated the analysing of reaction time and sensory acuity as measures of "neurophysiological efficiency" and the analysing of sensory acuity as a measure of intelligence.

Galton is regarded as the founder of psychometry (among other kinds of assessing, such as fingerprinting). He studied the work of Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin showed that traits must be inherited before evolution can occur. Reasoning that eminence is caused by genetic traits he did a study of their heritability, publishing it in 1869 as Hereditary Genius. His method was to count and assess the eminent relatives of eminent men. He found that the number of eminent relatives is greater with closer degree of kinship, indicating to him that a genetic trait is present in an eminent line of descent that is not present in other lines.[citation needed] This work is considered the first example of historiometry, an analytical study of historical human progress.

Albert Einstein, a 20th-century symbol of scientific genius.

Galton's theories were elaborated from the work of two early 19th-century pioneers in statistics: Karl Friedrich Gauss and Adolphe Quetelet. Gauss discovered the normal distribution (bell-shaped curve): Given a large number of measurements of the same variable under the same conditions, they vary at random from a most frequent value, the "average," to two least frequent values at maximum differences greater and less than the most frequent value. Quetelet discovered that the bell-shaped curve applied to social statistics gathered by the French government in the course of its normal processes on large numbers of people passing through the courts and the military. His initial work in criminology led him to observe "the greater the number of individuals observed the more do peculiarities become effaced..." This ideal from which the peculiarities were effaced became "the average man."

Himself a child prodigy, Galton was inspired by Quetelet to define the average man as "an entire normal scheme"; that is, if one combines the normal curves of every measurable human characteristic, one will in theory perceive a syndrome straddled by "the average man" and flanked by persons that are different. In contrast to Quetelet, Galton's average man was not statistical, but was theoretical only. There was no measure of general averageness, only a large number of very specific averages. Setting out to discover a general measure of the average, Galton looked at educational statistics and found bell-curves in test results of all sorts; initially in mathematics grades for the final honors examination and in entrance examination scores for Sandhurst.

Galton now departed from Gauss in a way that became crucially significant to the history of the 20th century AD. The bell-shaped curve was not random, he concluded. The differences between the average and the upper end were due to a non-random factor, "natural ability," which he defined as "those qualities of intellect and disposition, which urge and qualify men to perform acts that lead to reputation ... a nature which, when left to itself, will, urged by an inherent stimulus, climb the path that leads to eminence." The apparent randomness of the scores was due to the randomness of this natural ability in the population as a whole, in theory.

Galton was looking for a combination of differences that would reveal "the existence of grand human animals, of natures preeminently noble, of individuals born to be kings of men." Galton's selection of terms influenced Binet: geniuses for those born to be kings of men and "idiots and imbeciles", two English pejoratives, for those at the other extreme of the "normal scheme." Darwin read and espoused Galton's work. Galton went on to develop the field of eugenics.

Psychology

Genius is expressed in a variety of forms (e.g., mathematical, literary, performance). Genius may show itself in early childhood, as a prodigy with particular gifts (e.g., understanding), or later in life. Geniuses are often deemed as such after demonstrating great originality. They tend to have strong intuitions about their domains, and they build on these insights with tremendous energy. There is a cited link between creativity of genius and genetic mutations linked to psychosis.


Wayne Gretzky is widely regarded as having mastered ice hockey.

A hypothesis called multiple intelligences put forth by Harvard University professor Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind states there are at least seven types of intelligences, each with its own type of genius.

Malcolm Gladwell's book Outliers popularized a great deal of research into geniuses and mastery. Gladwell mentions the work of psychologist Anders Ericsson, who is an expert on expertise. As a result of his research, Ericsson suggests that it takes approximately 10,000 hours of deliberate practice to master something — what he calls the "10,000 rule." Outliers spends a great deal of time discussing other elements of chance that play a role in the creation of a genius, including Robert K. Merton's "Mathew Effect" (e.g. the rich get richer).

According to Ericsson, mentors play an important role in attaining mastery. Only so much can be taught, however, since many of a genius' skills may be implicit, meaning it is difficult for them to explain in words (i.e., make explicit) how they do what they do.

IQ tests

One usage of the noun "genius" is closely related to the general concept of intelligence. One currently accepted way of attempting to measure one's intelligence is with an IQ test. The label of "genius" for persons of high IQ was popularized by Lewis Terman. He and his colleague Leta Hollingworth suggested different scores as a cut-off for genius in psychometric terms. Terman considered it to be an IQ of 140, while Hollingworth put it at an IQ of 180.

In addition to the fundamental criticism that intelligence measured in this way is an example of reification and ranking fallacies, the IQ test has also been criticized as having a "cultural bias" in its interpretation despite assurances that these tests are designed to eliminate test bias.

Anders Ericsson argues that generally (with highly demanding fields like theoretical physics as the exception), after a person's IQ surpasses 120, their success is determined more by other qualities. In other words, there may be general decreasing return on raw mental power. Ericsson proposes social skills as an example of other qualities that are then more relevant to success. He also warns that IQ does not measure what many would consider "creativity" — sometimes measured by looking at an individual's Latent inhibition instead of IQ.

Philosophy


Leonardo da Vinci is widely acknowledged as having been a genius and a polymath.

Various philosophers have proposed definitions of what genius is and what that implies in the context of their philosophical theories.

In the philosophy of David Hume, the way society perceives genius is similar to the way society perceives the ignorant. Hume states that a person with the characteristics of a genius is looked at as a person disconnected from society, as well as a person who works remotely, at a distance, away from the rest of the world. "On the other hand, the mere ignorant is still more despised; nor is any thing deemed a surer sign of an illiberal genius in an age and nation where the sciences flourish, than to be entirely destitute of all relish for those noble entertainments. The most perfect character is supposed to lie between those extremes; retaining an equal ability and taste for books, company, and business; preserving in conversation that discernment and delicacy which arise from polite letters; and in business, that probity and accuracy which are the natural result of a just philosophy."[citation needed]

In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, genius is the ability to independently arrive at and understand concepts that would normally have to be taught by another person. For Kant, originality was the essential character of genius. This genius is a talent for producing ideas which can be described as non-imitative. Kant's discussion of the characteristics of genius is largely contained within the Critique of Judgement and was well received by the Romantics of the early 19th century. In addition, much of Schopenhauer's theory of genius, particularly regarding talent and the "disinterestedness" (i.e. "free play") of aesthetic contemplation, is directly derived from paragraphs of Part I of Kant's Critique of Judgment.

"Genius is a talent for producing something for which no determinate rule can be given, not a predisposition consisting of a skill for something that can be learned by following some rule or other."

—Immanuel Kant

In the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer, a genius is someone in whom intellect predominates over "will" much more than within the average person. In Schopenhauer's aesthetics, this predominance of the intellect over the will allows the genius to create artistic or academic works that are objects of pure, disinterested contemplation, the chief criterion of the aesthetic experience for Schopenhauer. Their remoteness from mundane concerns means that Schopenhauer's geniuses often display maladaptive traits in more mundane concerns; in Schopenhauer's words, they fall into the mire while gazing at the stars, an allusion to Plato's dialogue Theætetus, in which Socrates tells of Thales (the first philosopher) being ridiculed for falling in such circumstances.

Talent hits a target no one else can hit; Genius hits a target no one else can see.

—Arthur Schopenhauer

In the philosophy of Nietzsche, genius is merely the context which leads us to consider someone a genius. In Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche writes, "Great men, like great epochs, are explosive material in whom tremendous energy has been accumulated; their prerequisite has always been, historically and physiologically, that a protracted assembling, accumulating, economizing and preserving has preceded them – that there has been no explosion for a long time." In this way, Nietzsche follows in the line of German Idealism.

In the philosophy of Bertrand Russell, genius entails that an individual possesses unique qualities and talents that make the genius especially valuable to the society in which he or she operates. However, Russell's philosophy further maintains that it's possible for such a genius to be crushed by an unsympathetic environment during his or her youth. Russell rejected the notion he believed was popular during his lifetime that, "genius will out."

Kecerdasan itu

Banyak pemikiran untuk mendefinisikan kecerdasan. Dalam beberapa kasus, kecerdasan bisa termasuk kreativitas, kepribadian, watak, pengetahuan, atau kebijaksanaan. Namun, beberapa psikolog tak memasukkan hal-hal tadi dalam kerangka definisi kecerdasan. Kecerdasan biasanya merujuk pada kemampuan atau kapasitas mental dalam berpikir, namun belum terdapat definisi yang memuaskan mengenai kecerdasan. Stenberg & Slater (1982) mendefinisikannya sebagai tindakan atau pemikiran yang bertujuan dan adaptif.

Struktur kecerdasan

Kecerdasan dapat dibagi dua yaitu kecerdasan umum biasa disebut sebagai faktor-g maupun kecerdasan spesifik. Akan tetapi pada dasarnya kecerdasan dapat dipilah-pilah. Berikut ini pembagian spesifikasi kecerdasan menurut L.L. Thurstone:

  • Pemahaman dan kemampuan verbal
  • Angka dan hitungan
  • Kemampuan visual
  • Daya ingat
  • Penalaran
  • Kecepatan perseptual

Skala Wechsler yang umum dipergunakan untuk mendapatkan taraf kecerdasan membagi kecerdasan menjadi dua kelompok besar yaitu kemampuan kecerdasan verbal (VIQ) dan kemampuan kecerdasan tampilan (PIQ)

Faktor yang memengaruhi kecerdasan

Terdapat beberapa faktor yang memengaruhi kecerdasan, yaitu:

  • Faktor Bawaan atau Biologis

Dimana faktor ini ditentukan oleh sifat yang dibawa sejak lahir. Batas kesanggupan atau kecakapan seseorang dalam memecahkan masalah, antara lain ditentukan oleh faktor bawaan.

  • Faktor Minat dan Pembawaan yang Khas

Dimana minat mengarahkan perbuatan kepada suatu tujuan dan merupakan dorongan bagi perbuatan itu.

  • Faktor Pembentukan atau Lingkungan

Dimana pembentukan adalah segala keadaan di luar diri seseorang yang mempengaruhi perkembangan inteligensi.

  • Faktor Kematangan

Dimana tiap organ dalam tubuh manusia mengalami pertumbuhan dan perkembangan.

  • Faktor Kebebasan

Hal ini berarti manusia dapat memilih metode tertentu dalam memecahkan masalah yang dihadapi. Di samping kebebasan memilih metode, juga bebas dalam memilih masalah yang sesuai dengan kebutuhannya.

Pengukuran taraf kecerdasan

Salah satu uji kecerdasan yang diterima luas ialah berdasarkan pada uji psikometrik atau IQ. Pengukuran kecerdasan dilakukan dengan menggunakan tes tertulis atau tes tampilan (performance test) atau saat ini berkembang pengukuran dengan alat bantu komputer. Alat uji kecerdasan yang biasa di pergunakan adalah :

  • Stanford-Binnet intelligence scale
  • Wechsler scales yang terbagi menjadi beberapa turunan alat uji seperti :
    • WB (untuk dewasa)
    • WAIS (untuk dewasa versi lebih baru)
    • WISC (untuk anak usia sekolah)
    • WPPSI (untuk anak pra sekolah)
  • IST
  • TIKI (alat uji kecerdasan Khas Indonesia)
  • FRT
  • PM-60, PM Advance

Kritik terhadap tes IQ

Kelemahan dari alat uji kecerdasan ini adalah terdapat bias budaya, bahasa dan lingkungan yang memengaruhinya. Kekecewaan terhadap tes IQ konvensional menimbulkan pengembangan sejumlah teori alternatif, yang semuanya menegaskan bahwa kecerdasan adalah hasil dari sejumlah kemampuan independen yang berkonstribusi secara unik terhadap tampilan manusia.

Stephen Jay Gould adalah salah satu tokoh yang mengkritik teori kecerdasan. Dalam bukunya The Mismeasure of Man (Kesalahan Ukur Manusia), ia mengemukakan bahwa kecerdasan sebenarnya tak bisa diukur, dan juga mempertanyakan sudut pandang hereditarian atas kecerdasan.

Gejolak Jiwa itu Psikologi ?

Dalam kehidupan ini kita diharuskan mengetahui perbedaan budaya kita dengan budaya pada saat psikologi muncul sebagai ilmu pengetahuan. Apakah kajian ilmu tersebut sesuai dengan kebudayaan kita ataukah ada berbedaan di dalamnya. Misalkan, ketika kita adalah suku pedalaman yang masih menggunakan cara berburu dalam kehidupan sehari-hari maka berburu bisa menjadi tolak ukur kecerdasan kita sebagai masyarakat pedalaman, bukan dilihat dari bagaimana kecerdasan itu diukur dari bisa dan tidaknya kita menghitung matematika, menjawab soal-soal ujian, menjawab serangkaian tes kecerdasan dan lain-lain. Kesesuaian teori psikologi dengan kebudayaan kita itulah yang benar-benar harus kita pahami, sehingga teori-teori tersebut adalah teori yang benar-benar relevan dengan kebudayaan dan diri kita sebagai manusia

Psikologi adalah ilmu pengetahuan yang mempelajari perilaku manusia dalam hubungan dengan lingkungannya. Menurut asalnya katanya, psikologi berasal dari bahasa Yunani Kuno: "ψυχή" (Psychē yang berarti jiwa) dan "-λογία" (-logia yang artinya ilmu) sehingga secara etimologis, psikologi dapat diartikan dengan ilmu yang mempelajari tentang jiwa.

Metode Psikologi

Beberapa metodologi dalam psikologi, di antaranya sebagai berikut :
  1. Metodologi Eksperimental
    Cara ini dilakukan biasanya di dalam laboratorium dengan mengadakan berbagai eksperimen. Peneliti mempunyai kontrol sepenuhnya terhadap jalannya suatu eksperimen. Yaitu menentukan akan melakukan apa pada sesuatu yang akan ditelitinya, kapan akan melakukan penelitian, seberapa sering melakukan penelitiannya, dan sebagainya. Pada metode eksperimental, maka sifat subjektivitas dari metode introspeksi akan dapat diatasi. Pada metode instrospeksi murni hanya diri peneliti yang menjadi objek. Tetapi pada instrospeksi eksperimental jumlah subjek banyak, yaitu orang - orang yang dieksperimentasi itu. Dengan luasnya atau banyaknya subjek penelitian maka hasil yang didapatkan akan lebih objektif
  2. Observasi Ilmiah
    Pada pengamatan ilmiah, suatu hal pada situasi-situasi yang ditimbulkan tidak dengan sengaja. Melainkan dengan proses ilmiah dan secara spontan. Observasi alamiah ini dapat diterapkan pula pada tingkah laku yang lain, misalnya saja : tingkah laku orang-orang yang berada di toko serba ada, tingkah laku pengendara kendaraan bermotor dijalan raya, tingkah laku anak yang sedang bermain, perilaku orang dalam bencana alam, dan sebagainya.
  3. Sejarah Kehidupan (metode biografi)
    Sejarah kehidupan seseorang dapat merupakan sumber data yang penting untuk lebih mengetahui “jiwa” orang yang bersangkutan, misalnya dari cerita ibunya, seorang anak yang tidak naik kelas mungkin diketahui bahwa dia bukannya kurang pandai tetapi minatnya sejak kecil memang dibidang musik sehingga dia tidak cukup serius untuk mengikuti pendidikan di sekolahnya. Dalam metode ini orang menguraikan tentang keadaaa, sikap - sikap ataupun sifat lain mengenai orang yang bersangkutan. Pada metode ini disamping mempunyai keuntungan juga mempunyai kelemahan, yaitu tidak jarang metode ini bersifat subjektif.
  4. Wawancara
    Wawancara merupakan tanya jawab si pemeriksa dan orang yang diperiksa. Agar orang diperiksa itu dapat menemukan isi hatinya itu sendiri, pandangan-pandangannya, pendapatnya dan lain-lain sedemikian rupa sehingga orang yang mewawancarai dapat menggali semua informasi yang dibutuhkan.Baik angket atau interview keduanya mempunyai persamaan, tetapi berbeda dalam cara penyajiannya. Keuntungan interview dibandingkan dengan angket yaitu:
    1. Pada interview apabila terdapat hal yang kurang jelas maka dapat diperjelas
    2. interviwer(penanya) dapat menyesuaikan dengan suasana hati interviwee ( responden yang ditanyai)
    3. Terdapat interaksi langsung berupa face to facesehingga diharapkan dapat membina hubungan yang baik saat proses interview dilakukan.
  5. Angket
    Angket merupakan wawancara dalam bentuk tertulis. Semua pertanyaan telah di susun secara tertulis pada lembar-lembar pertanyaan itu, dan orang yang diwawancarai tinggal membaca pertanyaan yang diajukan, lalu menjawabnya secara tertulis pula. Jawaban-jawabannya akan dianalisis untuk mengetahui hal-hal yang diselidiki.
  6. Pemeriksaan Psikologi
    Dalam bahasa populernya pemeriksaan psikologi disebut juga dengan psikotes Metode ini menggunakan alat-alat psikodiagnostik tertentu yang hanya dapat digunakan oleh para ahli yang benar-benar sudah terlatih. alat-alat itu dapat dipergunakan unntuk mengukur dan untuk mengetahui taraf kecerdasan seseorang, arah minat seseorang, sikap seseorang, struktur kepribadian seeorang, dan lain-lain dari orang yang diperiksa itu.
  7. Metode Analisis Karya
    Dilakukan dengan cara menganalisis hasil karya seperti gambar - gambar, buku harian atau karangan yang telah dibuat. Hal ini karena karya dapat dianggap sebagai pencetus dari keadaan jiwa seseorang .
  8. Metode Statistik
    Umumnya digunakan dengan cara mengumpulkan data atau materi dalam penelitian lalu mengadakan penganalisaan terhadap hasil; yang telah di dapat
Fungsi psikologi sebagai ilmu

Psikologi memiliki tiga fungsi sebagai ilmu yaitu:

  • Menjelaskan, yaitu mampu menjelaskan apa, bagaimana, dan mengapa tingkah laku itu terjadi. Hasilnya penjelasan berupa deskripsi atau bahasan yang bersifat deskriptif
  • Memprediksikan, Yaitu mampu meramalkan atau memprediksikan apa, bagaimana, dan mengapa tingkah laku itu terjadi. Hasil prediksi berupa prognosa, prediksi atau estimasi
  • Pengendalian, Yaitu mengendalikan tingkah laku sesuai dengan yang diharapkan. Perwujudannya berupa tindakan yang sifatnya preventif atau pencegahan, intervensi atau treatment serta rehabilitasi atau perawatan.

Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan perilaku, pada dasarnya tingkah laku adalah respon atas stimulus yang datang. Secara sederhana dapat digambarkan dalam model S - R atau suatu kaitan Stimulus - Respon. Ini berarti tingkah laku itu seperti reflek tanpa kerja mental sama sekali.

Pendekatan kognitif

Pendekatan kognitif menekankan bahwa tingkah laku adalah proses mental, dimana individu (organisme) aktif dalam menangkap, menilai, membandingkan, dan menanggapi stimulus sebelum melakukan reaksi. Individu menerima stimulus lalu melakukan proses mental sebelum memberikan reaksi atas stimulus yang datang.

Pendekatan psikoanalisa

pendekatan Psikoanalisa yang dikembangkan oleh Sigmund Freud

Pendekatan psikoanalisa dikembangkan oleh Sigmund Freud. Ia meyakini bahwa kehidupan individu sebagian besar dikuasai oleh alam bawah sadar. Sehingga tingkah laku banyak didasari oleh hal-hal yang tidak disadari, seperti keinginan, impuls, atau dorongan. Keinginan atau dorongan yang ditekan akan tetap hidup dalam alam bawah sadar dan sewaktu-waktu akan menuntut untuk dipuaskan.

Pendekatan fenomenologi

Pendekatan fenomenologi ini lebih memperhatikan pada pengalaman subyektif individu karena itu tingkah laku sangat dipengaruhi oleh pandangan individu terhadap diri dan dunianya, konsep tentang dirinya, harga dirinya dan segala hal yang menyangkut kesadaran atau aktualisasi dirinya. Ini berarti melihat tingkah laku seseorang selalu dikaitkan dengan fenomena tentang dirinya.

Kajian psikologi

Psikologi adalah ilmu yang luas dan ambisius, dilengkapi oleh biologi dan ilmu saraf pada perbatasannya dengan ilmu alam dan dilengkapi oleh sosiologi dan anthropologi pada perbatasannya dengan ilmu sosial. Beberapa kajian ilmu psikologi diantaranya adalah:

1. Psikologi perkembangan

Adalah bidang studi psikologi yang mempelajari perkembangan manusia dan faktor-faktor yang membentuk prilaku seseorang sejak lahir sampai lanjut usia. Psikologi perkembangan berkaitan erat dengan psikologi sosial, karena sebagian besar perkembangan terjadi dalam konteks adanya interaksi sosial. Dan juga berkaitan erat dengan psikologi kepribadian, karena perkembangan individu dapat membentuk kepribadian khas dari individu tersebut

2. Psikologi sosial

Bidang ini mempunyai 3 ruang lingkup, yaitu :

  • studi tentang pengaruh sosial terhadap proses individu, misalnya : studi tentang persepsi, motivasi proses belajar, atribusi (sifat)
  • studi tentang proses-proses individual bersama, seperti bahasa, sikap sosial, perilaku meniru dan lain-lain
  • studi tentang interaksi kelompok, misalnya kepemimpinan, komunikasi hubungan kekuasaan, kerjasama dalam kelompok, dan persaingan.

3. Psikologi kepribadian

Adalah bidang studi psikologi yang mempelajari tingkah laku manusia dalam menyesuaikan diri dengan lingkungannya, psikologi kepribadian berkaitan erat dengan psikologi perkembangan dan psikologi sosial, karena kepribadian adalah hasil dari perkembangan individu sejak masih kecil dan bagaimana cara individu itu sendiri dalam berinteraksi sosial dengan lingkungannya.

4. Psikologi kognitif

Adalah bidang studi psikologi yang mempelajari kemampuan kognisi, seperti: Persepsi, proses belajar, kemampuan memori, atensi, kemampuan bahasa dan emosi.

Wilayah terapan psikologi

Wilayah terapan psikologi adalah wilayah-wilayah dimana kajian psikologi dapat diterapkan. walaupun demikian, belum terbiasanya orang-orang Indonesia dengan spesialisasi membuat wilayah terapan ini rancu, misalnya, seorang ahli psikologi pendidikan mungkin saja bekerja pada HRD sebuah perusahaan, atau sebaliknya.

1. Psikologi sekolah

Psikologi sekolah berusaha menciptakan situasi yang mendukung bagi anak didik dalam mengembangkan kemampuan akademik, sosialisasi, dan emosi. Yang bertujuan untuk membentuk mind set anak

2. Psikologi industri dan organisasi

Psikologi industri memfokuskan pada menggembangan, mengevaluasi dan memprediksi kinerja suatu pekerjaan yang dikerjakan oleh individu, sedangkan psikologi organisasi mempelajari bagaimana suatu organisasi memengaruhi dan berinteraksi dengan anggota-anggotanya

3. Psikologi kerekayasaan

Penerapan psikologi yang berkaitan dengan interaksi antara manusia dan mesin untuk meminimalisasikan kesalahan manusia ketika berhubungan dengan mesin (human error)

4. Psikologi klinis

Adalah bidang studi psikologi dan juga penerapan psikologi dalam memahami, mencegah dan memulihkan keadaan psikologis individu ke ambang normal.

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